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Bill C-11

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Second Session, Forty-third Parliament,
69 Elizabeth II, 2020
HOUSE OF COMMONS OF CANADA
BILL C-11
An Act to enact the Consumer Privacy Protection Act and the Personal Information and Data Protection Tribunal Act and to make consequential and related amendments to other Acts
FIRST READING, November 17, 2020
MINISTER OF INNOVATION, SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY
90964


SUMMARY

Part 1 enacts the Consumer Privacy Protection Act to protect the personal information of individuals while recognizing the need of organizations to collect, use or disclose personal information in the course of commercial activities. In consequence, it repeals Part 1 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and changes the short title of that Act to the Electronic Documents Act. It also makes consequential and related amendments to other Acts.
Part 2 enacts the Personal Information and Data Protection Tribunal Act, which establishes an administrative tribunal to hear appeals of certain decisions made by the Privacy Commissioner under the Consumer Privacy Protection Act and to impose penalties for the contravention of certain provisions of that Act. It also makes a related amendment to the Administrative Tribunals Support Service of Canada Act.
Available on the House of Commons website at the following address:
www.ourcommons.ca


TABLE OF PROVISIONS

An Act to enact the Consumer Privacy Protection Act and the Personal Information and Data Protection Tribunal Act and to make consequential and related amendments to other Acts
Short Title
1
Digital Charter Implementation Act, 2020
PART 1
Consumer Privacy Protection Act
2
Enactment
An Act to support and promote electronic commerce by protecting personal information that is collected, used or disclosed in the course of commercial activities
Short Title
1
Consumer Privacy Protection Act
Interpretation
2
Definitions
3
Order designating Minister
4
Authorized representatives
Purpose and Application
5
Purpose
6
Application
PART 1
Obligations of Organizations
Accountability of Organizations
7
Accountability — personal information under organization’s control
8
Designated individual
9
Privacy management program
10
Access by Commissioner — policies, practices and procedures
11
Same protection
Appropriate Purposes
12
Appropriate purposes
Limiting Collection, Use and Disclosure
13
Limiting collection
14
New purpose
Consent
15
Consent required
16
Consent obtained by deception
17
Withdrawal of consent
Exceptions to Requirement for Consent
Business Operations
18
Business activities
19
Transfer to service provider
20
De-identification of personal information
21
Research and development
22
Prospective business transaction
23
Information produced in employment, business or profession
24
Employment relationship — federal work, undertaking or business
25
Disclosure to lawyer or notary
26
Witness statement
27
Prevention, detection or suppression of fraud
28
Debt collection
Public Interest
29
Individual’s interest
30
Emergency — use
31
Emergency — disclosure
32
Identification of individual
33
Communication with next of kin or authorized representative
34
Financial abuse
35
Statistical or scholarly study or research
36
Records of historic or archival importance
37
Disclosure after period of time
38
Journalistic, artistic or literary purposes
39
Socially beneficial purposes
Investigations
40
Breach of agreement or contravention
41
Use for investigations
42
Breach of security safeguards
Disclosures to Government Institutions
43
Administering law
44
Law enforcement — request of government institution
45
Contravention of law — initiative of organization
46
Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act
47
Request by government institution — national security, defence or international affairs
48
Initiative of organization — national security, defence or international affairs
Required by Law
49
Required by law — collection
50
Subpoena, warrant or order
Publicly Available Information
51
Information specified by regulations
Non-application of Certain Exceptions — Electronic Addresses and Computer Systems
52
Definitions
Retention and Disposal of Personal Information
53
Period for retention and disposal
54
Personal information used for decision-making
55
Disposal at individual’s request
Accuracy of Personal Information
56
Accuracy of information
Security Safeguards
57
Security safeguards
58
Report to Commissioner
59
Notification to organizations
60
Records
61
Service providers
Openness and Transparency
62
Policies and practices
Access to and Amendment of Personal Information
63
Information and access
64
Request in writing
65
Information to be provided
66
Plain language
67
Time limit
68
Costs for responding
69
Retention of information
70
When access prohibited
71
Amendment of personal information
Mobility of Personal Information
72
Disclosure under data mobility framework
Challenging Compliance
73
Complaints and requests for information
De-identification of Personal Information
74
Proportionality of technical and administrative measures
75
Prohibition
PART 2
Commissioner’s Powers, Duties and Functions and General Provisions
Codes of Practice and Certification Programs
76
Definition of entity
77
Certification program
78
Response by Commissioner
79
Approval made public
80
For greater certainty
81
Powers of Commissioner
Recourses
Filing of Complaints
82
Contravention
Investigation of Complaints and Dispute Resolution
83
Investigation of complaint by Commissioner
84
Dispute resolution mechanisms
Discontinuance of Investigation
85
Reasons
Compliance Agreements
86
Entering into compliance agreement
Notification
87
Notification and reasons
Inquiry
88
Inquiry — complaint
89
Inquiry — compliance agreement
90
Nature of inquiries
91
Procedure
92
Decision
Penalties
93
Recommendation
94
Imposition of penalty
95
Recovery as debt due to Her Majesty
Audits
96
Ensure compliance
97
Report of findings and recommendations
Commissioner’s Powers — Investigations, Inquiries and Audits
98
Powers of Commissioner
99
Delegation
Appeals
100
Right of appeal
101
Appeal with leave
102
Disposition of appeals
Enforcement of Orders
103
Compliance orders
104
Tribunal orders
105
Filing with Court
Private Right of Action
106
Damages — contravention of Act
Certificate Under Canada Evidence Act
107
Certificate under Canada Evidence Act
Powers, Duties and Functions of Commissioner
108
Factors to consider
109
Promoting purposes of Act
110
Prohibition — use for initiating complaint or audit
111
Information — powers, duties or functions
112
Confidentiality
113
Not competent witness
114
Protection of Commissioner
115
Agreements or arrangements — CRTC and Commissioner of Competition
116
Consultations with provinces
117
Disclosure of information to foreign state
118
Annual report
General
119
Regulations
120
Data mobility frameworks
121
Distinguishing — classes
122
Regulations — codes of conduct and certification programs
123
Whistleblowing
124
Prohibition
125
Offence and punishment
126
Review by parliamentary committee
Consequential and Related Amendments
3
Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act
9
Access to Information Act
10
Aeronautics Act
11
Canada Evidence Act
13
Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission Act
14
Competition Act
15
Canada Business Corporations Act
16
Public Servants Disclosure Protection Act
19
Chapter 23 of the Statutes of Canada, 2010
31
Transportation Modernization Act
Terminology
32
Replacement of “Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act
Transitional Provisions
33
Definitions
Coordinating Amendments
34
2018, c. 10
PART 2
Personal Information and Data Protection Tribunal Act
35
Enactment
An Act to establish the Personal Information and Data Protection Tribunal
1
Personal Information and Data Protection Tribunal Act
2
Definition of Minister
3
Order designating Minister
4
Establishment
5
Jurisdiction
6
Members
7
Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson
8
Duties of Chairperson
9
Acting Chairperson
10
Term of office
11
Remuneration
12
Inconsistent interests
13
Principal office
14
Sittings
15
Nature of hearings
16
Powers
17
Reasons
18
Public availability — decisions
19
Rules
20
Costs
21
Decisions final
Related Amendment to the Administrative Tribunals Support Service of Canada Act
36
PART 3
Coming into Force
37
Order in council
SCHEDULE 
SCHEDULE 


2nd Session, 43rd Parliament,
69 Elizabeth II, 2020
HOUSE OF COMMONS OF CANADA
BILL C-11
An Act to enact the Consumer Privacy Protection Act and the Personal Information and Data Protection Tribunal Act and to make consequential and related amendments to other Acts
Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows:

Short Title

Short title
1This Act may be cited as the Digital Charter Implementation Act, 2020.

PART 1

Consumer Privacy Protection Act

Enactment of Act

Enactment
2The Consumer Privacy Protection Act, whose text is as follows and whose schedule is set out in the schedule to this Act, is enacted:
An Act to support and promote electronic commerce by protecting personal information that is collected, used or disclosed in the course of commercial activities
Short Title
Short title
1This Act may be cited as the Consumer Privacy Protection Act.
Interpretation
Definitions
2The following definitions apply in this Act.
alternative format, with respect to personal information, means a format that allows an individual with a sensory disability to read or listen to the personal information.‍ (support de substitution)
automated decision system means any technology that assists or replaces the judgement of human decision-makers using techniques such as rules-based systems, regression analysis, predictive analytics, machine learning, deep learning and neural nets.‍ (système décisionnel automatisé)
breach of security safeguards means the loss of, unauthorized access to or unauthorized disclosure of personal information resulting from a breach of an organization’s security safeguards that are referred to in section 57 or from a failure to establish those safeguards.‍ (atteinte aux mesures de sécurité)
business transaction includes
(a)the purchase, sale or other acquisition or disposition of an organization or a part of an organization, or any of its assets;
(b)the merger or amalgamation of two or more organizations;
(c)the making of a loan or provision of other financing to an organization or a part of an organization;
(d)the creating of a charge on, or the taking of a security interest in or a security on, any assets or securities of an organization;
(e)the lease or licensing of any of an organization’s assets; and
(f)any other prescribed arrangement between two or more organizations to conduct a business activity.‍ (transaction commerciale)
commercial activity means any particular transaction, act or conduct or any regular course of conduct that is of a commercial character, taking into account an organization’s objectives for carrying out the transaction, act or conduct, the context in which it takes place, the persons involved and its outcome.‍ (activité commerciale)
Commissioner means the Privacy Commissioner appointed under section 53 of the Privacy Act.‍ (commissaire)
de-identify means to modify personal information — or create information from personal information — by using technical processes to ensure that the information does not identify an individual or could not be used in reasonably foreseeable circumstances, alone or in combination with other information, to identify an individual.‍ (dépersonnaliser)
disposal means the permanent and irreversible deletion of personal information.‍ (retrait)
federal work, undertaking or business means any work, undertaking or business that is within the legislative authority of Parliament. It includes
(a)a work, undertaking or business that is operated or carried on for or in connection with navigation and shipping, whether inland or maritime, including the operation of ships and transportation by ship anywhere in Canada;
(b)a railway, canal, telegraph or other work or undertaking that connects a province with another province, or that extends beyond the limits of a province;
(c)a line of ships that connects a province with another province, or that extends beyond the limits of a province;
(d)a ferry between a province and another province or between a province and a country other than Canada;
(e)aerodromes, aircraft or a line of air transportation;
(f)a radio broadcasting station;
(g)a bank or an authorized foreign bank as defined in section 2 of the Bank Act;
(h)a work that, although wholly situated within a province, is before or after its execution declared by Parliament to be for the general advantage of Canada or for the advantage of two or more provinces;
(i)a work, undertaking or business outside the exclusive legislative authority of the legislatures of the provinces; and
(j)a work, undertaking or business to which federal laws, within the meaning of section 2 of the Oceans Act, apply under section 20 of that Act and any regulations made under paragraph 26(1)‍(k) of that Act.‍ (entreprises fédérales)
Minister means the member of the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada designated under section 3 or, if no member is designated, the Minister of Industry.‍ (ministre)
organization includes an association, a partnership, a person or a trade union.‍ (organisation)
personal information means information about an identifiable individual.‍ (renseignement personnel)
prescribed means prescribed by regulation.‍ (Version anglaise seulement)
record means any documentary material, regardless of medium or form.‍ (document)
service provider means an organization, including a parent corporation, subsidiary, affiliate, contractor or subcontractor, that provides services for or on behalf of another organization to assist the organization in fulfilling its purposes.‍ (fournisseur de services)
Tribunal means the Personal Information and Data Protection Tribunal established under section 4 of the Personal Information and Data Protection Tribunal Act.‍ (Tribunal)
Order designating Minister
3The Governor in Council may, by order, designate any member of the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada to be the Minister for the purposes of this Act.
Authorized representatives
4The rights and recourses provided under this Act may be exercised
(a)on behalf of a minor or an individual under any other legal incapacity by a person authorized by or under law to administer the affairs or property of that individual;
(b)on behalf of a deceased individual by a person authorized by or under law to administer the estate or succession of that individual, but only for the purpose of that administration; and
(c)on behalf of any other individual by any person authorized in writing to do so by the individual.
Purpose and Application
Purpose
5The purpose of this Act is to establish — in an era in which data is constantly flowing across borders and geographical boundaries and significant economic activity relies on the analysis, circulation and exchange of personal information — rules to govern the protection of personal information in a manner that recognizes the right of privacy of individuals with respect to their personal information and the need of organizations to collect, use or disclose personal information for purposes that a reasonable person would consider appropriate in the circumstances.
Application
6(1)This Act applies to every organization in respect of personal information that
(a)the organization collects, uses or discloses in the course of commercial activities; or
(b)is about an employee of, or an applicant for employment with, the organization and that the organization collects, uses or discloses in connection with the operation of a federal work, undertaking or business.
For greater certainty
(2)For greater certainty, this Act applies in respect of personal information
(a)that is collected, used or disclosed interprovincially or internationally by an organization; or
(b)that is collected, used or disclosed by an organization within a province, to the extent that the organization is not exempt from the application of this Act under an order made under paragraph 119(2)‍(b).
Application
(3)This Act also applies to an organization set out in column 1 of the schedule in respect of personal information set out in column 2.
Limit
(4)This Act does not apply to
(a)any government institution to which the Privacy Act applies;
(b)any individual in respect of personal information that the individual collects, uses or discloses solely for personal or domestic purposes;
(c)any organization in respect of personal information that the organization collects, uses or discloses solely for journalistic, artistic or literary purposes;
(d)any organization in respect of an individual’s personal information that the organization collects, uses or discloses solely for the purpose of communicating or facilitating communication with the individual in relation to their employment, business or profession; or
(e)any organization that is, under an order made under paragraph 119(2)‍(b), exempt from the application of this Act in respect of the collection, use or disclosure of personal information that occurs within a province in respect of which the order was made.
Other Acts
(5)Every provision of this Act applies despite any provision, enacted after December 31, 2000, of any other Act of Parliament, unless the other Act expressly declares that that provision operates despite the provision of this Act.
PART 1
Obligations of Organizations
Accountability of Organizations
Accountability — personal information under organization’s control
7(1)An organization is accountable for personal information that is under its control.
Personal information under control of organization
(2)Personal information is under the control of the organization that decides to collect it and that determines the purposes for its collection, use or disclosure, regardless of whether the information is collected, used or disclosed by the organization itself or by a service provider on behalf of the organization.
Designated individual
8(1)An organization must designate one or more individuals to be responsible for matters related to its obligations under this Act. It must provide the designated individual’s business contact information to any person who requests it.
Effect of designation of individual
(2)The designation of an individual under subsection (1) does not relieve the organization of its obligations under this Act.
Privacy management program
9(1)Every organization must implement a privacy management program that includes the organization’s policies, practices and procedures put in place to fulfil its obligations under this Act, including policies, practices and procedures respecting
(a)the protection of personal information;
(b)how requests for information and complaints are received and dealt with;
(c)the training and information provided to the organization’s staff respecting its policies, practices and procedures; and
(d)the development of materials to explain the organization’s policies and procedures put in place to fulfil its obligations under this Act.
Volume and sensitivity
(2)In developing its privacy management program, the organization must take into account the volume and sensitivity of the personal information under its control.
Access by Commissioner — policies, practices and procedures
10An organization must, on request of the Commissioner, provide the Commissioner with access to the policies, practices and procedures that are included in its privacy management program.
Same protection
11(1)If an organization transfers personal information to a service provider, the organization must ensure, by contract or otherwise, that the service provider provides substantially the same protection of the personal information as that which the organization is required to provide under this Act.
Service provider obligations
(2)The obligations under this Part, other than those set out in sections 57 and 61, do not apply to a service provider in respect of personal information that is transferred to it. However, the service provider is subject to all of the obligations under this Part if it collects, uses or discloses that information for any purpose other than the purposes for which the information was transferred.
Appropriate Purposes
Appropriate purposes
12(1)An organization may collect, use or disclose personal information only for purposes that a reasonable person would consider appropriate in the circumstances.
Factors to consider
(2)The following factors must be taken into account in determining whether the purposes referred to in subsection (1) are appropriate:
(a)the sensitivity of the personal information;
(b)whether the purposes represent legitimate business needs of the organization;
(c)the effectiveness of the collection, use or disclosure in meeting the organization’s legitimate business needs;
(d)whether there are less intrusive means of achieving those purposes at a comparable cost and with comparable benefits; and
(e)whether the individual’s loss of privacy is proportionate to the benefits in light of any measures, technical or otherwise, implemented by the organization to mitigate the impacts of the loss of privacy on the individual.
Purposes
(3)An organization must determine at or before the time of the collection of any personal information each of the purposes for which the information is to be collected, used or disclosed and record those purposes.
New purpose
(4)If the organization determines that the personal information it has collected is to be used or disclosed for a new purpose, the organization must record that new purpose before using or disclosing that information for the new purpose.
Limiting Collection, Use and Disclosure
Limiting collection
13The organization may collect only the personal information that is necessary for the purposes determined and recorded under subsection 12(3).
New purpose
14(1)An organization must not use or disclose personal information for a purpose other than a purpose determined and recorded under subsection 12(3), unless the organization obtains the individual’s valid consent before any use or disclosure for that other purpose.
Use or disclosure — other purposes
(2)Despite subsection (1), an organization may
(a)use personal information for a purpose other than a purpose determined and recorded under subsection 12(3) in any of the circumstances set out in sections 18, 20 and 21, subsections 22(1) and (2) and sections 23, 24, 26, 30, 41 and 51; or
(b)disclose personal information for a purpose other than a purpose determined and recorded under subsection 12(3) in any of the circumstances set out in subsections 22(1) and (2), sections 23 to 28, 31 to 37 and 39, subsection 40(3) and sections 42 and 43 to 51.
Consent
Consent required
15(1)Unless this Act provides otherwise, an organization must obtain an individual’s valid consent for the collection, use or disclosure of the individual’s personal information.
Timing of consent
(2)The individual’s consent must be obtained at or before the time of the collection of the personal information or, if the information is to be used or disclosed for a purpose other than a purpose determined and recorded under subsection 12(3), before any use or disclosure of the information for that other purpose.
Information for consent to be valid
(3)The individual’s consent is valid only if, at or before the time that the organization seeks the individual’s consent, it provides the individual with the following information in plain language:
(a)the purposes for the collection, use or disclosure of the personal information determined by the organization and recorded under subsection 12(3) or (4);
(b)the way in which the personal information is to be collected, used or disclosed;
(c)any reasonably foreseeable consequences of the collection, use or disclosure of the personal information;
(d)the specific type of personal information that is to be collected, used or disclosed; and
(e)the names of any third parties or types of third parties to which the organization may disclose the personal information.
Form of consent
(4)Consent must be expressly obtained, unless the organization establishes that it is appropriate to rely on an individual’s implied consent, taking into account the reasonable expectations of the individual and the sensitivity of the personal information that is to be collected, used or disclosed.
Consent — provision of product or service
(5)The organization must not, as a condition of the supply of a product or service, require an individual to consent to the collection, use or disclosure of their personal information beyond what is necessary to provide the product or service.
Consent obtained by deception
16An organization must not obtain or attempt to obtain an individual’s consent by providing false or misleading information or using deceptive or misleading practices. Any consent obtained under those circumstances is invalid.
Withdrawal of consent
17(1)On giving reasonable notice to an organization, an individual may, at any time, subject to this Act, to federal or provincial law or to the reasonable terms of a contract, withdraw their consent in whole or in part.
Collection, use or disclosure to cease
(2)On receiving the notice from the individual, the organization must inform the individual of the consequences of the withdrawal of their consent and, as soon as feasible after that, cease the collection, use or disclosure of the individual’s personal information in respect of which the consent was withdrawn.
Exceptions to Requirement for Consent
Business Operations
Business activities
18(1)An organization may collect or use an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent if the collection or use is made for a business activity described in subsection (2) and
(a)a reasonable person would expect such a collection or use for that activity; and
(b)the personal information is not collected or used for the purpose of influencing the individual’s behaviour or decisions.
List of activities
(2)Subject to the regulations, the following activities are business activities for the purpose of subsection (1):
(a)an activity that is necessary to provide or deliver a product or service that the individual has requested from the organization;
(b)an activity that is carried out in the exercise of due diligence to prevent or reduce the organization’s commercial risk;
(c)an activity that is necessary for the organization’s information, system or network security;
(d)an activity that is necessary for the safety of a product or service that the organization provides or delivers;
(e)an activity in the course of which obtaining the individual’s consent would be impracticable because the organization does not have a direct relationship with the individual; and
(f)any other prescribed activity.
Transfer to service provider
19An organization may transfer an individual’s personal information to a service provider without their knowledge or consent.
De-identification of personal information
20An organization may use an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent to de-identify the information.
Research and development
21An organization may use an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent for the organization’s internal research and development purposes, if the information is de-identified before it is used.
Prospective business transaction
22(1)Organizations that are parties to a prospective business transaction may use and disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent if
(a)the information is de-identified before it is used or disclosed and remains so until the transaction is completed;
(b)the organizations have entered into an agreement that requires the organization that receives the information
(i)to use and disclose that information solely for purposes related to the transaction,
(ii)to protect the information by security safeguards appropriate to the sensitivity of the information, and
(iii)if the transaction does not proceed, to return the information to the organization that disclosed it, or dispose of it, within a reasonable time;
(c)the organizations comply with the terms of that agreement; and
(d)the information is necessary
(i)to determine whether to proceed with the transaction, and
(ii)if the determination is made to proceed with the transaction, to complete it.
Completed business transaction
(2)If the business transaction is completed, the organizations that are parties to the transaction may use and disclose the personal information referred to in subsection (1) without the individual’s knowledge or consent if
(a)the organizations have entered into an agreement that requires each of them
(i)to use and disclose the information under its control solely for the purposes for which the information was collected or permitted to be used or disclosed before the transaction was completed,
(ii)to protect that information by security safeguards appropriate to the sensitivity of the information, and
(iii)to give effect to any withdrawal of consent made under subsection 17(1);
(b)the organizations comply with the terms of that agreement;
(c)the information is necessary for carrying on the business or activity that was the object of the transaction; and
(d)one of the parties notifies the individual, within a reasonable time after the transaction is completed, that the transaction has been completed and that their information has been disclosed under subsection (1).
Exception
(3)Subsections (1) and (2) do not apply to a business transaction of which the primary purpose or result is the purchase, sale or other acquisition or disposition, or lease, of personal information.
Information produced in employment, business or profession
23An organization may collect, use or disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent if it was produced by the individual in the course of their employment, business or profession and the collection, use or disclosure is consistent with the purposes for which the information was produced.
Employment relationship — federal work, undertaking or business
24An organization that operates a federal, work or business may collect, use or disclose an individual’s personal information without their consent if
(a)the collection, use or disclosure is necessary to establish, manage or terminate an employment relationship between the organization and the individual in connection with the operation of a federal work, undertaking or business; and
(b)the organization has informed the individual that the personal information will be or may be collected, used or disclosed for those purposes.
Disclosure to lawyer or notary
25An organization may disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent to a lawyer or, in Quebec, a lawyer or notary, who is representing the organization.
Witness statement
26An organization may collect, use or disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent if the information is contained in a witness statement and the collection, use or disclosure is necessary to assess, process or settle an insurance claim.
Prevention, detection or suppression of fraud
27(1)An organization may disclose an individual’s personal information to another organization without the individual’s knowledge or consent if the disclosure is reasonable for the purposes of detecting or suppressing fraud or of preventing fraud that is likely to be committed and it is reasonable to expect that the disclosure with the individual’s knowledge or consent would compromise the ability to prevent, detect or suppress the fraud.
Collection
(2)An organization may collect an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent if the information was disclosed to it under subsection (1).
Debt collection
28An organization may disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent for the purpose of collecting a debt owed by the individual to the organization.
Public Interest
Individual’s interest
29(1)An organization may collect an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent if the collection is clearly in the interests of the individual and consent cannot be obtained in a timely way.
Use
(2)An organization may use an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent if the information was collected under subsection (1).
Emergency — use
30An organization may use an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent for the purpose of acting in respect of an emergency that threatens the life, health or security of any individual.
Emergency — disclosure
31An organization may disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent to a person who needs the information because of an emergency that threatens the life, health or security of any individual. If the individual whom the information is about is alive, the organization must inform that individual in writing without delay of the disclosure.
Identification of individual
32An organization may disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent if the disclosure is necessary to identify the individual who is injured, ill or deceased and is made to a government institution, a part of a government institution or the individual’s next of kin or authorized representative. If the individual is alive, the organization must inform them in writing without delay of the disclosure.
Communication with next of kin or authorized representative
33An organization may disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent to a government institution or part of a government institution that has made a request for the information, identified its lawful authority to obtain the information and indicated that the disclosure is requested for the purpose of communicating with the next of kin or authorized representative of an injured, ill or deceased individual.
Financial abuse
34An organization may on its own initiative disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent to a government institution, a part of a government institution or the individual’s next of kin or authorized representative if
(a)the organization has reasonable grounds to believe that the individual has been, is or may be the victim of financial abuse;
(b)the disclosure is made solely for purposes related to preventing or investigating the abuse; and
(c)it is reasonable to expect that disclosure with the knowledge or consent of the individual would compromise the ability to prevent or investigate the abuse.
Statistical or scholarly study or research
35An organization may disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent if
(a)the disclosure is made for statistical purposes or for scholarly study or research purposes and those purposes cannot be achieved without disclosing the information;
(b)it is impracticable to obtain consent; and
(c)the organization informs the Commissioner of the disclosure before the information is disclosed.
Records of historic or archival importance
36An organization may disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent to an institution whose functions include the conservation of records of historic or archival importance, if the disclosure is made for the purpose of such conservation.
Disclosure after period of time
37An organization may disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent after the earlier of
(a)100 years after the record containing the information was created, and
(b)20 years after the death of the individual.
Journalistic, artistic or literary purposes
38An organization may collect an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent if the collection is solely for journalistic, artistic or literary purposes.
Socially beneficial purposes
39(1)An organization may disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent if
(a)the personal information is de-identified before the disclosure is made;
(b)the disclosure is made to
(i)a government institution or part of a government institution in Canada,
(ii)a health care institution, post-secondary educational institution or public library in Canada,
(iii)any organization that is mandated, under a federal or provincial law or by contract with a government institution or part of a government institution in Canada, to carry out a socially beneficial purpose, or
(iv)any other prescribed entity; and
(c)the disclosure is made for a socially beneficial purpose.
Definition of socially beneficial purpose
(2)For the purpose of this section, socially beneficial purpose means a purpose related to health, the provision or improvement of public amenities or infrastructure, the protection of the environment or any other prescribed purpose.
Investigations
Breach of agreement or contravention
40(1)An organization may collect an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent if it is reasonable to expect that the collection with their knowledge or consent would compromise the availability or the accuracy of the information and the collection is reasonable for purposes related to investigating a breach of an agreement or a contravention of federal or provincial law.
Use
(2)An organization may use an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent if the information was collected under subsection (1).
Disclosure
(3)An organization may disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent if the disclosure is made to another organization and is reasonable for the purposes of investigating a breach of an agreement or a contravention of federal or provincial law that has been, is being or is about to be committed and it is reasonable to expect that disclosure with the knowledge or consent of the individual would compromise the investigation.
Use for investigations
41An organization may use an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent if, in the course of its activities, the organization becomes aware of information that it has reasonable grounds to believe could be useful in the investigation of a contravention of federal or provincial law or law of a foreign jurisdiction that has been, is being or is about to be committed and the information is used for the purpose of investigating that contravention.
Breach of security safeguards
42An organization may disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent if
(a)the disclosure is made to the other organization, government institution or part of a government institution that was notified of a breach under subsection 59(1); and
(b)the disclosure is made solely for the purposes of reducing the risk of harm to the individual that could result from the breach or mitigating that harm.
Disclosures to Government Institutions
Administering law
43An organization may disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent to a government institution or part of a government institution that has made a request for the information, identified its lawful authority to obtain the information and indicated that the disclosure is requested for the purpose of administering federal or provincial law.
Law enforcement — request of government institution
44An organization may disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent to a government institution or part of a government institution that has made a request for the information, identified its lawful authority to obtain the information and indicated that the disclosure is requested for the purpose of enforcing federal or provincial law or law of a foreign jurisdiction, carrying out an investigation relating to the enforcement of any such law or gathering intelligence for the purpose of enforcing any such law.
Contravention of law — initiative of organization
45An organization may on its own initiative disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent to a government institution or a part of a government institution if the organization has reasonable grounds to believe that the information relates to a contravention of federal or provincial law or law of a foreign jurisdiction that has been, is being or is about to be committed.
Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act
46An organization may disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent to the government institution referred to in section 7 of the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act as required by that section.
Request by government institution — national security, defence or international affairs
47(1)An organization may disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent to a government institution or part of a government institution that has made a request for the information, identified its lawful authority to obtain the information and indicated that it suspects that the information relates to national security, the defence of Canada or the conduct of international affairs.
Collection
(2)An organization may collect an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent for the purpose of making a disclosure under subsection (1).
Use
(3)An organization may use an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent if it was collected under subsection (2).
Initiative of organization — national security, defence or international affairs
48(1)An organization may on its own initiative disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent to a government institution or a part of a government institution if the organization suspects that the information relates to national security, the defence of Canada or the conduct of international affairs.
Collection
(2)An organization may collect an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent for the purpose of making a disclosure under subsection (1).
Use
(3)An organization may use an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent if it was collected under subsection (2).
Required by Law
Required by law — collection
49(1)An organization may collect an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent for the purpose of making a disclosure that is required by law.
Use
(2)An organization may use an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent if it was collected under subsection (1).
Disclosure
(3)An organization may disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent if the disclosure is required by law.
Subpoena, warrant or order
50An organization may disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent if the disclosure is required to comply with a subpoena or warrant issued or an order made by a court, person or body with jurisdiction to compel the production of information, or to comply with rules of procedure relating to the production of records.
Publicly Available Information
Information specified by regulations
51An organization may collect, use or disclose an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent if the personal information is publicly available and is specified by the regulations.
Non-application of Certain Exceptions — Electronic Addresses and Computer Systems
Definitions
52(1)The following definitions apply in this section.
access means to program, execute programs on, communicate with, store data in, retrieve data from or otherwise make use of any resources, including data or programs of a computer system or a computer network.‍ (utiliser)
computer program has the same meaning as in subsection 342.‍1(2) of the Criminal Code.‍ (programme d’ordinateur)
computer system has the same meaning as in subsection 342.‍1(2) of the Criminal Code.‍ (ordinateur)
electronic address means an address used in connection with
(a)an electronic mail account;
(b)an instant messaging account; or
(c)any similar account.‍ (adresse électronique)
Collection and use of electronic addresses
(2)An organization is not authorized under any of sections 18, 23 and 26, subsection 29(1) and sections 30, 38, 41 and 51 to
(a)collect an individual’s electronic address without their knowledge or consent, if the address is collected by the use of a computer program that is designed or marketed primarily for use in generating or searching for, and collecting, electronic addresses; or
(b)use an individual’s electronic address without their knowledge or consent, if the address is collected by the use of a computer program described in paragraph (a).
Accessing computer system to collect personal information, etc.
(3)An organization is not authorized under any of sections 18, 23 and 26, subsection 29(1), sections 30 and 38, subsection 40(1) and sections 41 and 51 to
(a)collect an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent, through any means of telecommunication, if the information is collected by accessing a computer system or causing a computer system to be accessed in contravention of an Act of Parliament; or
(b)use an individual’s personal information without their knowledge or consent, if the information is collected in a manner described in paragraph (a).
Express consent
(4)Despite subsection 15(4), an organization is not to rely on an individual’s implied consent in respect of any collection of personal information described in paragraph (2)‍(a) or (3)‍(a) or any use of personal information described in paragraph (2)‍(b) or (3)‍(b).
Retention and Disposal of Personal Information
Period for retention and disposal
53An organization must not retain personal information for a period longer than necessary to
(a)fulfil the purposes for which the information was collected, used or disclosed; or
(b)comply with the requirements of this Act, of federal or provincial law or of the reasonable terms of a contract.
The organization must dispose of the information as soon as feasible after that period.
Personal information used for decision-making
54An organization that uses personal information to make a decision about an individual must retain the information for a sufficient period of time to permit the individual to make a request for access under section 63.
Disposal at individual’s request
55(1)If an organization receives a written request from an individual to dispose of personal information that it has collected from the individual, the organization must, as soon as feasible, dispose of the information, unless
(a)disposing of the information would result in the disposal of personal information about another individual and the information is not severable; or
(b)there are other requirements of this Act, of federal or provincial law or of the reasonable terms of a contract that prevent it from doing so.
Reasons
(2)An organization that refuses a request must inform the individual in writing of the refusal, setting out the reasons and any recourse that they may have under section 73 or subsection 82(1).
Disposal of transferred personal information
(3)If an organization disposes of personal information, it must, as soon as feasible, inform any service provider to which it has transferred the information of the individual’s request and obtain a confirmation from the service provider that the information has been disposed of.
Accuracy of Personal Information
Accuracy of information
56(1)An organization must take reasonable steps to ensure that personal information under its control is as accurate, up-to-date and complete as is necessary to fulfil the purposes for which the information is collected, used or disclosed.
Extent of accuracy
(2)In determining the extent to which personal information must be accurate, complete and up-to-date, the organization must take into account the individual’s interests, including
(a)whether the information may be used to make a decision about the individual;
(b)whether the information is used on an ongoing basis; and
(c)whether the information is disclosed to third parties.
Routine updating
(3)An organization is not to routinely update personal information unless it is necessary to fulfil the purposes for which the information is collected, used or disclosed.
Security Safeguards
Security safeguards
57(1)An organization must protect personal information through physical, organizational and technological security safeguards. The level of protection provided by those safeguards must be proportionate to the sensitivity of the information.
Factors to consider
(2)In addition to the sensitivity of the information, the organization must, in establishing its security safeguards, take into account the quantity, distribution, format and method of storage of the information.
Scope of security safeguards
(3)The security safeguards must protect personal information against, among other things, loss, theft and unauthorized access, disclosure, copying, use and modification.
Report to Commissioner
58(1)An organization must report to the Commissioner any breach of security safeguards involving personal information under its control if it is reasonable in the circumstances to believe that the breach creates a real risk of significant harm to an individual.
Report requirements
(2)The report must contain the prescribed information and must be made in the prescribed form and manner as soon as feasible after the organization determines that the breach has occurred.
Notification to individual
(3)Unless otherwise prohibited by law, an organization must notify an individual of any breach of security safeguards involving the individual’s personal information under the organization’s control if it is reasonable in the circumstances to believe that the breach creates a real risk of significant harm to the individual.
Contents of notification
(4)The notification must contain sufficient information to allow the individual to understand the significance to them of the breach and to take steps, if any are possible, to reduce the risk of harm that could result from it or to mitigate that harm. It must also contain any other prescribed information.
Form and manner
(5)The notification must be conspicuous and must be given directly to the individual in the prescribed form and manner, except in prescribed circumstances, in which case it must be given indirectly in the prescribed form and manner.
Time to give notification
(6)The notification must be given as soon as feasible after the organization determines that the breach has occurred.
Definition of significant harm
(7)For the purpose of this section, significant harm includes bodily harm, humiliation, damage to reputation or relationships, loss of employment, business or professional opportunities, financial loss, identity theft, negative effects on the credit record and damage to or loss of property.
Real risk of significant harm — factors
(8)The factors that are relevant to determining whether a breach of security safeguards creates a real risk of significant harm to the individual include
(a)the sensitivity of the personal information involved in the breach;
(b)the probability that the personal information has been, is being or will be misused; and
(c)any other prescribed factor.
Notification to organizations
59(1)An organization that notifies an individual of a breach of security safeguards under subsection 58(3) must notify any other organization, a government institution or a part of a government institution of the breach if the notifying organization believes that the other organization or the government institution or part concerned may be able to reduce the risk of harm that could result from it or mitigate that harm, or if any of the prescribed conditions are satisfied.
Time to give notification
(2)The notification must be given as soon as feasible after the organization determines that the breach has occurred.
Records
60(1)An organization must, in accordance with any prescribed requirements, keep and maintain a record of every breach of security safeguards involving personal information under its control.
Provision to Commissioner
(2)An organization must, on request, provide the Commissioner with access to, or a copy of, the record.
Service providers
61If a service provider determines that any breach of security safeguards has occurred that involves personal information, it must as soon as feasible notify the organization that controls the personal information.
Openness and Transparency
Policies and practices
62(1)An organization must make readily available, in plain language, information that explains the organization’s policies and practices put in place to fulfil its obligations under this Act.
Additional information
(2)In fulfilling its obligation under subsection (1), an organization must make the following information available:
(a)a description of the type of personal information under the organization’s control;
(b)a general account of how the organization makes use of personal information, including how the organization applies the exceptions to the requirement to obtain consent under this Act;
(c)a general account of the organization’s use of any automated decision system to make predictions, recommendations or decisions about individuals that could have significant impacts on them;
(d)whether or not the organization carries out any international or interprovincial transfer or disclosure of personal information that may have reasonably foreseeable privacy implications;
(e)how an individual may make a request for disposal under section 55 or access under section 63; and
(f)the business contact information of the individual to whom complaints or requests for information may be made.
Access to and Amendment of Personal Information
Information and access
63(1)On request by an individual, an organization must inform them of whether it has any personal information about them, how it uses the information and whether it has disclosed the information. It must also give the individual access to the information.
Names or types of third parties
(2)If the organization has disclosed the information, the organization must also provide to the individual the names of the third parties or types of third parties to which the disclosure was made, including in cases where the disclosure was made without the consent of the individual.
Automated decision system
(3)If the organization has used an automated decision system to make a prediction, recommendation or decision about the individual, the organization must, on request by the individual, provide them with an explanation of the prediction, recommendation or decision and of how the personal information that was used to make the prediction, recommendation or decision was obtained.
Request in writing
64(1)A request under section 63 must be made in writing.
Assistance
(2)An organization must assist any individual who informs the organization that they need assistance in preparing a request to the organization.
Information to be provided
65An organization may require the individual to provide it with sufficient information to allow the organization to fulfil its obligations under section 63.
Plain language
66(1)The information referred to in section 63 must be provided to the individual in plain language.
Sensory disability
(2)For the purpose of section 63, an organization must give access to personal information in an alternative format to an individual with a sensory disability who requests that it be transmitted in that format if
(a)a version of the information already exists in that format; or
(b)its conversion into that format is reasonable and necessary in order for the individual to be able to exercise rights under this Act.
Sensitive medical information
(3)An organization may choose to give an individual access to sensitive medical information through a medical practitioner.
Time limit
67(1)An organization must respond to a request made under section 63 with due diligence and in any case no later than 30 days after the day on which the request was received.
Extension of time limit
(2)An organization may extend the time limit
(a)for a maximum of 30 days if
(i)meeting the time limit would unreasonably interfere with the activities of the organization, or
(ii)the time required to undertake any consultations necessary to respond to the request would make the time limit impracticable to meet; or
(b)for the period that is necessary in order to be able to convert the personal information into an alternative format.
In either case, the organization must, no later than 30 days after the day on which the request was received, send a notice of extension to the individual, advising them of the new time limit, the reasons for extending the time limit and their right to make a complaint to the Commissioner in respect of the extension.
Reasons
(3)An organization that responds within the time limit and refuses a request must inform the individual in writing of the refusal, setting out the reasons and any recourse that they may have under section 73 or subsection 82(1).
Deemed refusal
(4)If the organization fails to respond within the time limit, the organization is deemed to have refused the request.
Costs for responding
68An organization must not respond to the individual’s request made under section 63 at a cost unless
(a)the organization has informed the individual of the approximate cost;
(b)the cost to the individual is minimal; and
(c)the individual has advised the organization that the request is not being withdrawn.
Retention of information
69An organization that has personal information that is the subject of a request made under section 63 must retain the information for as long as is necessary to allow the individual to exhaust any recourse that they may have under this Act.
When access prohibited
70(1)Despite section 63, an organization must not give an individual access to personal information under that section if doing so would likely reveal personal information about another individual. However, if the information about the other individual is severable from the information about the requester, the organization must sever the information about the other individual before giving the requester access.
Limit
(2)Subsection (1) does not apply if the other individual consents to the access or the requester needs the information because an individual’s life, health or security is threatened.
Information related to certain exceptions to consent
(3)An organization must comply with subsection (4) if an individual requests that the organization
(a)inform the individual about
(i)any disclosure to a government institution or a part of a government institution under section 44, 45 or 46, subsection 47(1) or 48(1) or section 50, or
(ii)the existence of any information that the organization has relating to a disclosure referred to in subparagraph (i), to a subpoena, warrant or order referred to in section 50 or to a request made by a government institution or a part of a government institution under section 44 or subsection 47(1); or
(b)give the individual access to the information referred to in subparagraph (a)‍(ii).
Notification and response
(4)An organization to which subsection (3) applies
(a)must, in writing and without delay, notify the institution or part concerned of the request made by the individual; and
(b)must not respond to the request before the earlier of
(i)the day on which it is notified under subsection (5), and
(ii)30 days after the day on which the institution or part is notified.
Objection
(5)Within 30 days after the day on which it is notified under subsection (4), the institution or part must notify the organization of whether the institution or part objects to the organization complying with the request. The institution or part may object only if the institution or part is of the opinion that compliance with the request could reasonably be expected to be injurious to
(a)national security, the defence of Canada or the conduct of international affairs;
(b)the detection, prevention or deterrence of money laundering or the financing of terrorist activities; or
(c)the enforcement of federal or provincial law or law of a foreign jurisdiction, an investigation relating to the enforcement of any such law or the gathering of intelligence for the purpose of enforcing any such law.
Prohibition
(6)Despite section 63, if an organization is notified under subsection (5) that the institution or part objects to the organization complying with the request, the organization
(a)must refuse the request to the extent that it relates to paragraph (3)‍(a) or to information referred to in subparagraph (3)‍(a)‍(ii);
(b)must notify the Commissioner, in writing and without delay, of the refusal; and
(c)must not give the individual access to any information that the organization has relating to a disclosure to a government institution or a part of a government institution under section 44, 45 or 46, subsection 47(1) or 48(1) or section 50 or to a request made by a government institution or part of a government institution under section 44 or subsection 47(1); and
(d)must not provide to the individual the name of the government institution or part to which the disclosure was made or its type; and
(e)must not disclose to the individual the fact that the organization notified an institution or part under paragraph (4)‍(a), that the institution or part objects or that the Commissioner was notified under paragraph (b).
When access may be refused
(7)Despite section 63, an organization is not required to give access to personal information if
(a)the information is protected by solicitor-client privilege or the professional secrecy of advocates and notaries or by litigation privilege;
(b)to do so would reveal confidential commercial information;
(c)to do so could reasonably be expected to threaten the life or security of another individual;
(d)the information was collected under subsection 40(1);
(e)the information was generated in the course of a formal dispute resolution process; or
(f)the information was created for the purpose of making a disclosure under the Public Servants Disclosure Protection Act or in the course of an investigation into a disclosure under that Act.
However, in the circumstances described in paragraph (b) or (c), if giving access to the information would reveal confidential commercial information or could reasonably be expected to threaten the life or security of another individual, as the case may be, and that information is severable from any other information for which access is requested, the organization must give the individual access after severing.
Limit
(8)Subsection (7) does not apply if the individual needs the information because an individual’s life, health or security is threatened.
Notice
(9)If an organization decides not to give access to personal information in the circumstances set out in paragraph (7)‍(d), the organization must, in writing, notify the Commissioner, and must provide any information that the Commissioner may specify.
Amendment of personal information
71(1)If an individual has been given access to their personal information and demonstrates that the information is not accurate, up-to-date or complete, the organization must amend the information as required.
Third party
(2)The organization must, if it is appropriate to do so, transmit the amended information to any third party that has access to the information.
Record of determination
(3)If the organization and the individual do not agree on the amendments that are to be made to the information, the organization must record the disagreement and, if it is appropriate to do so, inform third parties that have access to the information of the fact that there is a disagreement.
Mobility of Personal Information
Disclosure under data mobility framework
72Subject to the regulations, on the request of an individual, an organization must as soon as feasible disclose the personal information that it has collected from the individual to an organization designated by the individual, if both organizations are subject to a data mobility framework provided under the regulations.
Challenging Compliance
Complaints and requests for information
73(1)An individual may make a complaint, or a request for information, to an organization with respect to its compliance with this Part. The organization must respond to any complaint or request that it receives.
Process for making complaint or request
(2)An organization must make readily available information about the process for making a complaint or request.
Investigation of complaints
(3)An organization must investigate any complaint that it receives and make any necessary changes to its policies, practices and procedures as a result of the investigation.
De-identification of Personal Information
Proportionality of technical and administrative measures
74An organization that de-identifies personal information must ensure that any technical and administrative measures applied to the information are proportionate to the purpose for which the information is de-identified and the sensitivity of the personal information.
Prohibition
75An organization must not use de-identified information alone or in combination with other information to identify an individual, except in order to conduct testing of the effectiveness of security safeguards that the organization has put in place to protect the information.
PART 2
Commissioner’s Powers, Duties and Functions and General Provisions
Codes of Practice and Certification Programs
Definition of entity
76(1)For the purpose of this section and sections 77 to 81, entity includes any organization, regardless of whether it is an organization to which this Act applies, or a government institution.
Code of practice
(2)An entity may, in the manner provided by the regulations, apply to the Commissioner for approval of a code of practice that provides for substantially the same or greater protection of personal information as some or all of the protection provided under this Act.
Approval by Commissioner
(3)The Commissioner may approve the code of practice if the Commissioner determines that the code meets the criteria set out in the regulations.
Certification program
77(1)An entity may, in the manner provided by the regulations, apply to the Commissioner for approval of a certification program that includes
(a)a code of practice that provides for substantially the same or greater protection of personal information as some or all of the protection provided under this Act;
(b)guidelines for interpreting and implementing the code of practice;
(c)a mechanism by which an entity that operates the program may certify that an organization is in compliance with the code of practice;
(d)a mechanism for the independent verification of an organization’s compliance with the code of practice;
(e)disciplinary measures for non-compliance with the code of practice by an organization, including the revocation of an organization’s certification; and
(f)anything else that is provided in the regulations.
Approval by Commissioner
(2)The Commissioner may approve the certification program if the Commissioner determines that the program meets the criteria set out in the regulations.
Response by Commissioner
78The Commissioner must respond in writing to an application under subsection 76(2) or 77(1) in the time specified in the regulations.
Approval made public
79The Commissioner must make public a decision to approve a code of practice or certification program.
For greater certainty
80For greater certainty, compliance with the requirements of a code of practice or a certification program does not relieve an organization of its obligations under this Act.
Powers of Commissioner
81The Commissioner may
(a)request that an entity that operates an approved certification program provide the Commissioner with information that relates to the program;
(b)cooperate with an entity that operates an approved certification program for the purpose of the exercise of the Commissioner’s powers and the performance of the Commissioner’s duties and functions under this Act;
(c)in accordance with the regulations, recommend to an entity that operates an approved certification program that an organization’s certification be withdrawn, in the circumstances and according to the criteria set out in the regulations, if the Commissioner is of the opinion that the organization is not in compliance with the requirements of the program;
(d)disclose information to the Commissioner of Competition, under an agreement or arrangement entered into under section 115, that relates to an entity that operates an approved certification program or an organization that is certified under an approved certification program;
(e)in accordance with the regulations, revoke an approval of a certification program in the circumstances and according to the criteria set out in the regulations; or
(f)consult with federal government institutions respecting codes of practice or certification programs.
Recourses
Filing of Complaints
Contravention
82(1)An individual may file with the Commissioner a written complaint against an organization for contravening Part 1.
Commissioner may initiate complaint
(2)If the Commissioner is satisfied that there are reasonable grounds to investigate a matter under this Act, the Commissioner may initiate a complaint in respect of the matter.
Time limit
(3)A complaint that results from the refusal to grant a request made under section 63 must be filed within six months, or any longer period that the Commissioner allows, after the refusal or after the expiry of the time limit for responding to the request, as the case may be.
Notice
(4)The Commissioner must give notice of a complaint to the organization against which the complaint was made, unless the Commissioner decides under subsection 83(2) not to carry out an investigation.
Investigation of Complaints and Dispute Resolution
Investigation of complaint by Commissioner
83(1)The Commissioner must carry out an investigation in respect of a complaint, unless the Commissioner is of the opinion that
(a)the complainant should first exhaust grievance or review procedures otherwise reasonably available;
(b)the complaint could more appropriately be dealt with, initially or completely, by means of a procedure provided for under any federal law, other than this Act, or provincial law;
(c)the complaint was not filed within a reasonable period after the day on which the subject matter of the complaint arose; or
(d)the complaint raises an issue in respect of which a certification program that was approved by the Commissioner under subsection 77(2) applies and the organization is certified under that program.
Exception
(2)Despite subsection (1), the Commissioner is not required to carry out an investigation in respect of an act alleged in a complaint if the Commissioner is of the opinion that the act, if proved, would constitute a contravention of any of sections 6 to 9 of An Act to promote the efficiency and adaptability of the Canadian economy by regulating certain activities that discourage reliance on electronic means of carrying out commercial activities, and to amend the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission Act, the Competition Act, the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and the Telecommunications Act or section 52.‍01 of the Competition Act or would constitute conduct that is reviewable under section 74.‍011 of that Act.
Notification
(3)The Commissioner must notify the complainant and the organization that the Commissioner will not investigate the complaint or any act alleged in the complaint and give reasons. However, if the decision is made for any of the reasons set out in subsection (2), the Commissioner must notify the complainant only.
Compelling reasons
(4)The Commissioner may reconsider a decision not to investigate under subsection (1) if the Commissioner is satisfied that the complainant has established that there are compelling reasons to investigate.
Dispute resolution mechanisms
84The Commissioner may attempt to resolve a complaint by means of a dispute resolution mechanism such as mediation and conciliation, unless an inquiry is being conducted in respect of the complaint.
Discontinuance of Investigation
Reasons
85(1)The Commissioner may discontinue the investigation of a complaint if the Commissioner is of the opinion that
(a)there is insufficient evidence to pursue the investigation;
(b)the complaint is trivial, frivolous or vexatious or is made in bad faith;
(c)the organization has provided a fair and reasonable response to the complaint;
(d)the matter is already the object of an ongoing investigation or inquiry under this Act;
(e)the matter has already been the subject of a report or decision by the Commissioner;
(f)any of the circumstances referred to in paragraphs 83(1)‍(a) to (d) apply;
(g)the matter is being or has already been addressed under a procedure referred to in paragraph 83(1)‍(a) or (b); or
(h)the matter is the object of a compliance agreement entered into under subsection 86(1).
Other reason
(2)The Commissioner may discontinue an investigation in respect of an act alleged in a complaint if the Commissioner is of the opinion that the act, if proved, would constitute a contravention of any of sections 6 to 9 of An Act to promote the efficiency and adaptability of the Canadian economy by regulating certain activities that discourage reliance on electronic means of carrying out commercial activities, and to amend the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission Act, the Competition Act, the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and the Telecommunications Act or section 52.‍01 of the Competition Act or would constitute conduct that is reviewable under section 74.‍011 of that Act.
Compliance Agreements
Entering into compliance agreement
86(1)If, in the course of an investigation, the Commissioner believes on reasonable grounds that an organization has committed, is about to commit or is likely to commit an act or omission that could constitute a contravention of Part 1, the Commissioner may enter into a compliance agreement with that organization, aimed at ensuring compliance with this Act.
Terms
(2)A compliance agreement may contain any terms that the Commissioner considers necessary to ensure compliance with this Act.
Effect of compliance agreement
(3)The Commissioner must not commence an inquiry under section 88 in respect of any matter covered under the agreement.
For greater certainty
(4)For greater certainty, a compliance agreement does not preclude the prosecution of an offence under this Act.
Notification
Notification and reasons
87The Commissioner must notify the complainant and the organization and give reasons if an investigation has been discontinued or an investigation has concluded and the Commissioner will not be conducting an inquiry.
Inquiry
Inquiry — complaint
88(1)After investigating a complaint, the Commissioner may conduct an inquiry in respect of the complaint if the matter is not
(a)the subject of dispute resolution under section 84;
(b)discontinued; or
(c)resolved.
Notice
(2)The Commissioner must give notice of the inquiry to the complainant and the organization.
Inquiry — compliance agreement
89(1)If the Commissioner believes on reasonable grounds that an organization is not complying with the terms of a compliance agreement entered into under subsection 86(1), the Commissioner may conduct an inquiry in respect of the non-compliance.
Notice
(2)The Commissioner must give notice of the inquiry to the organization.
Nature of inquiries
90(1)Subject to subsection (2), the Commissioner is not bound by any legal or technical rules of evidence in conducting an inquiry and must deal with the matter as informally and expeditiously as the circumstances and considerations of fairness and natural justice permit.
Restriction
(2)The Commissioner must not receive or accept as evidence anything that would be inadmissible in a court by reason of any privilege under the law of evidence.
Opportunity to be heard
(3)In conducting the inquiry, the Commissioner must give the organization and the complainant an opportunity to be heard and to be assisted or represented by counsel or by any person.
Inquiry in private
(4)The Commissioner may hold all or any part of the inquiry in private.
Procedure
91The Commissioner may determine the procedure to be followed in the conduct of an inquiry and must make that procedure publicly available.
Decision
92(1)The Commissioner must complete an inquiry by rendering a decision that sets out
(a)the Commissioner’s findings on whether the organization has contravened this Act or has not complied with the terms of a compliance agreement;
(b)any order made under subsection (2);
(c)any decision made under subsection 93(1); and
(d)the Commissioner’s reasons for the findings, order or decision.
Compliance order
(2)The Commissioner may, to the extent that is reasonably necessary to ensure compliance with this Act, order the organization to
(a)take measures to comply with this Act;
(b)stop doing something that is in contravention of this Act;
(c)comply with the terms of a compliance agreement that has been entered into by the organization; or
(d)make public any measures taken or proposed to be taken to correct the policies, practices or procedures that the organization has put in place to fulfil its obligations under this Act.
Communication of decision
(3)The decision must be sent to the complainant and the organization without delay.
Extension of time
(4)An inquiry conducted under section 88 must be completed within one year after the day on which the complaint is filed or is initiated by the Commissioner. However, the Commissioner may extend the time limit, for a period not exceeding one year, by notifying the complainant and the organization of the anticipated date on which the decision is to be made.
Penalties
Recommendation
93(1)If, in completing an inquiry under section 88 or 89, the Commissioner finds that an organization has contravened one or more of the following provisions, the Commissioner must decide whether to recommend that a penalty be imposed on the organization by the Tribunal:
(a)section 13;
(b)subsection 14(1);
(c)subsection 15(5);
(d)section 16;
(e)section 53;
(f)subsections 55(1) and (3);
(g)subsection 57(1); and
(h)subsections 58(1) and (3).
Factors to consider
(2)In making the decision, the Commissioner must take the following factors into account:
(a)the nature and scope of the contravention;
(b)whether the organization has voluntarily paid compensation to a person affected by the contravention;
(c)the organization’s history of compliance with this Act; and
(d)any other relevant factor.
Limitation
(3)The Commissioner must not recommend that a penalty be imposed on an organization if the Commissioner is of the opinion that, at the time of the contravention of the provision in question, the organization was in compliance with the requirements of a certification program that was in relation to that provision and was approved by the Commissioner under subsection 77(2).
Notice to Tribunal
(4)If the Commissioner decides to recommend that a penalty be imposed on an organization, the Commissioner must file with the Tribunal a copy of the decision rendered under subsection 92(1) that sets out the decision to recommend.
Imposition of penalty
94(1)The Tribunal may, by order, impose a penalty on an organization if
(a)the Commissioner files a copy of a decision in relation to the organization in accordance with subsection 93(4) or the Tribunal, on appeal, substitutes its own decision to recommend that a penalty be imposed on the organization for the Commissioner’s decision not to recommend;
(b)the organization and the Commissioner are given the opportunity to make representations; and
(c)the Tribunal determines that imposing the penalty is appropriate.
Findings
(2)In determining whether it is appropriate to impose a penalty on an organization, the Tribunal must rely on the findings set out in the decision that is rendered by the Commissioner under subsection 92(1) in relation to the organization or on the Tribunal’s own findings if, on appeal, it substitutes its own findings for those of the Commissioner.
Limitations
(3)The Tribunal must not impose a penalty on an organization in relation to a contravention if a prosecution for the act or omission that constitutes the contravention has been instituted against the organization or if the organization establishes that it exercised due diligence to prevent the contravention.
Maximum penalty
(4)The maximum penalty for all the contraventions in a recommendation taken together is the higher of $10,000,000 and 3% of the organization’s gross global revenue in its financial year before the one in which the penalty is imposed.
Factors to consider
(5)In determining whether it is appropriate to impose a penalty on an organization and in determining the amount of a penalty, the Tribunal must take the following factors into account:
(a)the factors set out in subsection 93(2);
(b)the organization’s ability to pay the penalty and the likely effect of paying it on the organization’s ability to carry on its business; and
(c)any financial benefit that the organization obtained from the contravention.
Purpose of penalty
(6)The purpose of a penalty is to promote compliance with this Act and not to punish.
Recovery as debt due to Her Majesty
95A penalty imposed under section 94 constitutes a debt due to Her Majesty and the debt is payable and may be recovered by the Minister as of the day on which it is imposed.
Audits
Ensure compliance
96The Commissioner may, on reasonable notice and at any reasonable time, audit the personal information management practices of an organization if the Commissioner has reasonable grounds to believe that the organization has contravened Part 1.
Report of findings and recommendations
97(1)After an audit, the Commissioner must provide the audited organization with a report that contains the findings of the audit and any recommendations that the Commissioner considers appropriate.
Reports may be included in annual reports
(2)The report may be included in a report made under section 118.
Commissioner’s Powers — Investigations, Inquiries and Audits
Powers of Commissioner
98(1)In carrying out an investigation of a complaint, conducting an inquiry or carrying out an audit, the Commissioner may
(a)summon and enforce the appearance of persons before the Commissioner and compel them to give oral or written evidence on oath and to produce any records and things that the Commissioner considers necessary to carry out the investigation, conduct the inquiry or carry out the audit, in the same manner and to the same extent as a superior court of record;
(b)administer oaths;
(c)receive and accept any evidence and other information, whether on oath, by affidavit or otherwise, that the Commissioner sees fit, whether or not it is or would be admissible in a court of law;
(d)make any interim order that the Commissioner considers appropriate;
(e)order an organization that has information that is relevant to the investigation, inquiry or audit to retain the information for as long as is necessary to allow the Commissioner to carry out the investigation, conduct the inquiry or carry out the audit;
(f)at any reasonable time, enter any premises, other than a dwelling-house, occupied by an organization on satisfying any security requirements of the organization relating to the premises;
(g)converse in private with any person in any premises entered under paragraph (f) and otherwise make any inquiries in those premises that the Commissioner sees fit; and
(h)examine or obtain copies of or extracts from records found in any premises entered under paragraph (f) that contain any matter relevant to the investigation, inquiry or audit.
Return of records
(2)The Commissioner or the Commissioner’s delegate must return to a person or an organization any record or thing that they produced under this section within 10 days after the day on which they make a request to the Commissioner or the delegate, but nothing precludes the Commissioner or the delegate from again requiring that the record or thing be produced.
Delegation
99(1)The Commissioner may delegate any of the powers, duties or functions set out in sections 83 to 96 and subsection 98(1).
Certificate of delegation
(2)Any person to whom powers set out in subsection 98(1) are delegated must be given a certificate of the delegation and the delegate must produce the certificate, on request, to the person in charge of any premises to be entered under paragraph (f) of that subsection.
Appeals
Right of appeal
100(1)A complainant or organization that is affected by any of the following findings, orders or decisions may appeal it to the Tribunal:
(a)a finding that is set out in a decision rendered under subsection 92(1);
(b)an order made under subsection 92(2); or
(c)a decision made under subsection 93(1) not to recommend that a penalty be imposed on the organization.
Time limit — appeal
(2)The time limit for making an appeal is 30 days after the day on which the Commissioner renders the decision under subsection 92(1) that sets out the finding, order or decision.
Appeal with leave
101(1)A complainant or organization that is affected by an interim order made under paragraph 98(1)‍(d) may, with leave of the Tribunal, appeal the order to the Tribunal.
Time limit — leave to appeal
(2)The time limit for making an application for leave to appeal is 30 days after the day on which the order is made.
Disposition of appeals
102(1)The Tribunal may dispose of an appeal by dismissing it or by allowing it and, in allowing the appeal, the Tribunal may substitute its own finding, order or decision for the one under appeal.
Standard of review
(2)The standard of review for an appeal is correctness for questions of law and palpable and overriding error for questions of fact or questions of mixed law and fact.
Enforcement of Orders
Compliance orders
103(1)If an order made by the Commissioner under subsection 92(2) is not appealed to the Tribunal or an appeal of the order is dismissed by the Tribunal, the order may, for the purposes of its enforcement, be made an order of the Federal Court and is enforceable in the same manner as an order of that Court.
Interim orders
(2)If an application for leave to appeal to the Tribunal is not made in relation to an order made by the Commissioner under paragraph 98(1)‍(d), a leave application in relation to the order is dismissed by the Tribunal or a leave application in relation to the order is granted by the Tribunal but the appeal is dismissed, then the order may, for the purposes of its enforcement, be made an order of the Federal Court and is enforceable in the same manner as an order of that Court.
Tribunal orders
104If the Tribunal, on appeal, substitutes its own order for an order of the Commissioner made under subsection 92(2) or paragraph 98(1)‍(d), the Tribunal’s order may, for the purposes of its enforcement, be made an order of the Federal Court and is enforceable in the same manner as an order of that Court.
Filing with Court
105An order referred to in section 103 or 104 is made an order of the Federal Court by filing a certified copy of it with the Registrar of that Court.
Private Right of Action
Damages — contravention of Act
106(1)An individual who is affected by an act or omission by an organization that constitutes a contravention of this Act has a cause of action against the organization for damages for loss or injury that the individual has suffered as a result of the contravention if
(a)the Commissioner has made a finding under paragraph 92(1)‍(a) that the organization has contravened this Act and
(i)the finding is not appealed and the time limit for making an appeal under subsection 100(2) has expired, or
(ii)the Tribunal has dismissed an appeal of the finding under subsection 102(1); or
(b)the Tribunal has made a finding under subsection 102(1) that the organization has contravened this Act.
Damages — offence
(2)If an organization has been convicted of an offence under section 125, an individual affected by the act or omission that gave rise to the offence has a cause of action against the organization for damages for loss or injury that the individual has suffered as a result of the act or omission.
Limitation period or prescription
(3)An action must not be brought later than two years after the day on which the individual becomes aware of
(a)in the case of an action under subsection (1), the Commissioner’s finding or, if there is an appeal, the Tribunal’s decision; and
(b)in the case of an action under subsection (2), the conviction.
Court of competent jurisdiction
(4)An action referred to in subsection (1) or (2) may be brought in the Federal Court or a superior court of a province.
Certificate Under Canada Evidence Act
Certificate under Canada Evidence Act
107(1)If a certificate under section 38.‍13 of the Canada Evidence Act prohibiting the disclosure of personal information of a specific individual is issued before a complaint is filed by that individual under this Act in respect of a request for access to that information, the provisions of this Act respecting that individual’s right of access to their personal information do not apply to the information that is subject to the certificate.
Certificate following filing of complaint
(2)Despite any other provision of this Act, if a certificate under section 38.‍13 of the Canada Evidence Act prohibiting the disclosure of personal information of a specific individual is issued after the filing of a complaint under this Act in relation to a request for access to that information,
(a)all proceedings under this Act in respect of that information, including an investigation, inquiry, audit, appeal or judicial review, are discontinued;
(b)the Commissioner must not disclose the information and must take all necessary precautions to prevent its disclosure; and
(c)the Commissioner must, within 10 days after the day on which the certificate is published in the Canada Gazette, return the information to the organization that provided the information.
Information not to be disclosed
(3)The Commissioner and every person acting on behalf or under the direction of the Commissioner, in exercising their powers and performing their duties and functions under this Act, must not disclose information subject to a certificate issued under section 38.‍13 of the Canada Evidence Act and must take every reasonable precaution to avoid the disclosure of that information.
Power to delegate
(4)The Commissioner must not delegate the investigation or inquiry in respect of any complaint relating to information subject to a certificate issued under section 38.‍13 of the Canada Evidence Act except to one of a maximum of four officers or employees of the Commissioner specifically designated by the Commissioner for the purpose of conducting that investigation or inquiry, as the case may be.
Powers, Duties and Functions of Commissioner
Factors to consider
108In addition to taking into account the purpose of this Act in the exercise of the Commissioner’s powers and the performance of the Commissioner’s duties and functions under this Act, the Commissioner must take into account the size and revenue of organizations, the volume and sensitivity of the personal information under their control and matters of general public interest.
Promoting purposes of Act
109The Commissioner must
(a)develop and conduct information programs to foster public understanding of this Act and recognition of its purposes;
(b)develop guidance materials for organizations in relation to their compliance with this Act — including any guidance materials that are requested by the Minister — in consultation with affected stakeholders, including any relevant federal government institutions;
(c)undertake and publish research that is related to the protection of personal information, including any research that is requested by the Minister;
(d)undertake and publish any research related to the operation or implementation of this Act that is requested by the Minister;
(e)on request by an organization, provide guidance on the organization’s privacy management program; and
(f)promote, by any other means that the Commissioner considers appropriate, the purposes of this Act.
Prohibition — use for initiating complaint or audit
110The Commissioner must not use the information they receive under section 10 or paragraph 109(e) as grounds to initiate a complaint under subsection 82(2) or to carry out an audit under section 96.
Information — powers, duties or functions
111The Commissioner must make readily available information on the manner in which the Commissioner exercises the Commissioner’s powers or performs the Commissioner’s duties or functions under this Act.
Confidentiality
112(1)Subject to subsections (3) to (8), section 79, paragraph 81(c), subsections 82(4) and 83(3), section 87, subsections 88(2) and 89(2), section 92, subsections 93(4), 97(1), 115(2), 116(3) and 117(1) and section 118, the Commissioner or any person acting on behalf or under the direction of the Commissioner must not disclose any information that comes to their knowledge as a result of the exercise of any of the Commissioner’s powers or the performance of any of the Commissioner’s duties or functions under this Act other than those referred to in subsection 58(1) or 60(2).
Confidentiality — reports and records
(2)Subject to subsections (3) to (8), section 79, paragraph 81(c), subsections 82(4) and 83(3), section 87, subsections 88(2) and 89(2), section 92, subsections 93(4), 97(1), 115(2), 116(3) and 117(1) and section 118, the Commissioner or any person acting on behalf or under the direction of the Commissioner must not disclose any information contained in a report made under subsection 58(1) or in a record obtained under subsection 60(2).
Public interest
(3)The Commissioner may, if the Commissioner considers that it is in the public interest to do so, make public any information that comes to the Commissioner’s knowledge in the exercise of any of the Commissioner’s powers or the performance of any of the Commissioner’s duties or functions under this Act.
Disclosure of necessary information
(4)The Commissioner may disclose, or may authorize any person acting on behalf or under the direction of the Commissioner to disclose, information that in the Commissioner’s opinion is necessary to
(a)carry out an investigation, conduct an inquiry or carry out an audit under this Act; or
(b)establish the grounds for findings and recommendations contained in any decision or report made under this Act.
Disclosure in the course of proceedings
(5)The Commissioner may disclose, or may authorize any person acting on behalf or under the direction of the Commissioner to disclose, information in the course of
(a)a prosecution for an offence under section 125;
(b)a prosecution for an offence under section 132 of the Criminal Code (perjury) in respect of a statement made under this Act;
(c)a proceeding or an appeal before the Tribunal under this Act; or
(d)a judicial review in relation to the exercise of any of the Commissioner’s powers or the performance of any of the Commissioner’s duties or functions under this Act or in relation to a decision of the Tribunal.
Disclosure of offence authorized
(6)The Commissioner may disclose to the Attorney General of Canada or of a province, as the case may be, information relating to the commission of an offence under any federal or provincial law on the part of an officer or employee of an organization if, in the Commissioner’s opinion, there is evidence of an offence.
Disclosure of breach of security safeguards
(7)The Commissioner may disclose, or may authorize any person acting on behalf or under the direction of the Commissioner to disclose, to a government institution or a part of a government institution, any information contained in a report made under subsection 58(1) or in a record obtained under subsection 60(2) if the Commissioner has reasonable grounds to believe that the information could be useful in the investigation of a contravention of any federal or provincial law that has been, is being or is about to be committed.
Disclosure
(8)The Commissioner may disclose information, or may authorize any person acting on behalf or under the direction of the Commissioner to disclose information, in the course of proceedings in which the Commissioner has intervened under paragraph 50(c) of An Act to promote the efficiency and adaptability of the Canadian economy by regulating certain activities that discourage reliance on electronic means of carrying out commercial activities, and to amend the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission Act, the Competition Act, the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and the Telecommunications Act or in accordance with subsection 58(3) or 60(1) of that Act.
Not competent witness
113The Commissioner or any person acting on behalf or under the direction of the Commissioner is not a competent witness in respect of any matter that comes to their knowledge as a result of the exercise of any of the Commissioner’s powers or the performance of any of the Commissioner’s duties or functions under this Act in any proceeding other than
(a)a prosecution for an offence under section 125;
(b)a prosecution for an offence under section 132 of the Criminal Code (perjury) in respect of a statement made under this Act; or
(c)a proceeding or an appeal before the Tribunal under this Act.
Protection of Commissioner
114(1)No criminal or civil proceedings lie against the Commissioner, or against any person acting on behalf or under the direction of the Commissioner, for anything done, reported, decided or said in good faith as a result of the exercise or purported exercise of any power of the Commissioner or the performance or purported performance of any duty or function of the Commissioner under this Act.
Defamation
(2)No action lies in defamation with respect to
(a)anything said, any information supplied or any record or thing produced in good faith in the course of an investigation or audit carried out or an inquiry conducted by or on behalf of the Commissioner under this Act; and
(b)any report or decision made in good faith by the Commissioner under this Act and any fair and accurate account of the report or decision made in good faith for the purpose of news reporting.
Agreements or arrangements — CRTC and Commissioner of Competition
115(1)The Commissioner may enter into agreements or arrangements with the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission or the Commissioner of Competition in order to
(a)undertake and publish research on issues of mutual interest; and
(b)develop procedures for disclosing information referred to in subsection (2).
Disclosure of information
(2)The Commissioner may, in accordance with any procedure established under paragraph (1)‍(b), disclose information, other than information the Commissioner has received under section 10 or paragraph 109(e), to the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission or the Commissioner of Competition if the information is relevant to their powers, duties or functions.
Purpose and confidentiality
(3)The procedures referred to in paragraph (1)‍(b) must
(a)restrict the use of the information to the purpose for which it was originally disclosed; and
(b)stipulate that the information be treated in a confidential manner and not be further disclosed without the express consent of the Commissioner.
Consultations with provinces
116(1)If the Commissioner considers it appropriate to do so, or on the request of an interested person, the Commissioner may, in order to ensure that personal information is protected in as consistent a manner as possible, consult with any person who, under provincial legislation, has powers, duties and functions similar to those of the Commissioner with respect to the protection of personal information.
Agreements or arrangements with provinces
(2)The Commissioner may enter into agreements or arrangements with any person referred to in subsection (1) in order to
(a)coordinate the activities of their offices and the office of the Commissioner, including to provide for mechanisms for the handling of any complaint in which they are mutually interested;
(b)undertake and publish research or develop and publish guidelines or other documents related to the protection of personal information;
(c)develop model contracts or other documents related to the protection of personal information that is collected, used or disclosed interprovincially or internationally; and
(d)develop procedures for disclosing information referred to in subsection (3).
Disclosure of information to provinces
(3)The Commissioner may, in accordance with any procedure established under paragraph (2)‍(d), disclose information, other than information the Commissioner has received under section 10 or paragraph 109(e), to any person referred to in subsection (1), if the information
(a)could be relevant to an ongoing or potential investigation of a complaint, inquiry or audit under this Act or provincial legislation that has objectives that are similar to this Act; or
(b)could assist the Commissioner or that person in the exercise of their powers or the performance of their duties or functions with respect to the protection of personal information.
Purpose and confidentiality
(4)The procedures referred to in paragraph (2)‍(d) must
(a)restrict the use of the information to the purpose for which it was originally disclosed; and
(b)stipulate that the information be treated in a confidential manner and not be further disclosed without the express consent of the Commissioner.
Disclosure of information to foreign state
117(1)Subject to subsection (3), the Commissioner may, in accordance with any procedure established under paragraph (4)‍(b), disclose information referred to in subsection (2), other than information the Commissioner has received under section 10 or paragraph 109(e), that has come to the Commissioner’s knowledge as a result of the exercise of any of the Commissioner’s powers or the performance of any of the Commissioner’s duties and functions under this Act to any person or body who, under the legislation of a foreign state, has
(a)powers, duties and functions similar to those of the Commissioner with respect to the protection of personal information; or
(b)responsibilities that relate to conduct that is substantially similar to conduct that would be in contravention of this Act.
Information that can be disclosed
(2)The information that the Commissioner is authorized to disclose under subsection (1) is information that the Commissioner believes
(a)would be relevant to an ongoing or potential investigation or proceeding in respect of a contravention of the laws of a foreign state that address conduct that is substantially similar to conduct that would be in contravention of this Act; or
(b)is necessary to disclose in order to obtain from the person or body information that may be useful to an ongoing or potential investigation, inquiry or audit under this Act.
Written arrangements
(3)The Commissioner may only disclose information to the person or body referred to in subsection (1) if the Commissioner has entered into a written arrangement with that person or body that
(a)limits the information to be disclosed to that which is necessary for the purpose set out in paragraph (2)‍(a) or (b);
(b)restricts the use of the information to the purpose for which it was originally disclosed; and
(c)stipulates that the information be treated in a confidential manner and not be further disclosed without the express consent of the Commissioner.
Arrangements
(4)The Commissioner may enter into arrangements with one or more persons or bodies referred to in subsection (1) in order to
(a)provide for cooperation with respect to the enforcement of laws protecting personal information, including the disclosure of information referred to in subsection (2) and the provision of mechanisms for the handling of any complaint in which they are mutually interested;
(b)establish procedures for disclosing information referred to in subsection (2);
(c)develop recommendations, resolutions, rules, standards or other documents with respect to the protection of personal information;
(d)undertake and publish research related to the protection of personal information;
(e)share knowledge and expertise by different means, including through staff exchanges; or
(f)identify issues of mutual interest and determine priorities pertaining to the protection of personal information.
Annual report
118(1)The Commissioner must, within three months after the end of each financial year, cause to be tabled in each House of Parliament a report concerning the application of this Act, the extent to which the provinces have enacted legislation that is substantially similar to this Act and the application of any such legislation.
Consultation
(2)Before preparing the report, the Commissioner must consult with those persons in the provinces who, in the Commissioner’s opinion, are in a position to assist the Commissioner in making a report respecting personal information that is collected, used or disclosed interprovincially or internationally.
General
Regulations
119(1)The Governor in Council may make regulations for carrying out the purposes and provisions of this Act, including regulations
(a)respecting the scope of any of the activities set out in paragraphs 18(2)‍(a) to (e), including specifying activities that are excluded from the activities set out in those paragraphs;
(b)specifying what is a government institution or part of a government institution for the purposes of any provision of this Act;
(c)specifying information for the purpose of section 51;
(d)specifying information to be kept and maintained under subsection 60(1); and
(e)prescribing anything that by this Act is to be prescribed.
Orders
(2)The Governor in Council may, by order,
(a)provide that this Act is binding on any agent of Her Majesty in right of Canada to which the Privacy Act does not apply;
(b)if satisfied that legislation of a province that is substantially similar to this Act applies to an organization, a class of organizations, an activity or a class of activities, exempt the organization, activity or class from the application of this Act in respect of the collection, use or disclosure of personal information that occurs within that province; and
(c)amend the schedule by adding or deleting, in column 1, a reference to an organization or by adding or deleting, in column 2, the description of personal information in relation to an organization in column 1.
Regulations — substantially similar provincial legislation
(3)The Governor in Council may make regulations establishing
(a)criteria that are to be applied in making a determination under paragraph (2)‍(b) that provincial legislation is substantially similar to this Act, or in reconsidering that determination; and
(b)the process for making or reconsidering that determination.
Data mobility frameworks
120The Governor in Council may make regulations respecting the disclosure of personal information under section 72, including regulations
(a)respecting data mobility frameworks that provide for
(i)safeguards that must be put in place by organizations to enable the secure disclosure of personal information under section 72 and the collection of that information, and
(ii)parameters for the technical means for ensuring interoperability in respect of the disclosure and collection of that information;
(b)specifying organizations that are subject to a data mobility framework; and
(c)providing for exceptions to the requirement to disclose personal information under that section, including exceptions related to the protection of proprietary or confidential commercial information.
Distinguishing — classes
121Regulations made under subsection 119(1) or section 120 may distinguish among different classes of activities, government institutions or parts of government institutions, information, organizations or entities.
Regulations — codes of conduct and certification programs
122The Minister may make regulations
(a)providing for the manner of making an application under subsection 76(2);
(b)setting out criteria for the purpose of subsection 76(3);
(c)respecting the reconsideration of a determination made under subsection 76(3);
(d)providing for the manner of making an application under subsection 77(1);
(e)providing for anything else that must be included in a certification program for the purpose of paragraph 77(1)‍(f);
(f)setting out criteria for the purpose of subsection 77(2);
(g)respecting the reconsideration of a determination made under subsection 77(2);
(h)specifying, for the purpose of section 78, the time for responding to an application;
(i)respecting the criteria for and the manner and the circumstances in which a recommendation may be made under paragraph 81(c);
(j)respecting the criteria for and the manner and the circumstances in which an approval may be revoked under paragraph 81(e); and
(k)respecting record-keeping and reporting obligations of an entity that operates an approved certification program, including obligations to provide reports to the Commissioner in respect of an approved certification program.
Whistleblowing
123(1)Any person who has reasonable grounds to believe that a person has contravened or intends to contravene Part 1 may notify the Commissioner of the particulars of the matter and may request that their identity be kept confidential with respect to the notification.
Confidentiality
(2)The Commissioner must keep confidential the identity of a person who has notified the Commissioner under subsection (1) and to whom an assurance of confidentiality has been provided by the Commissioner.
Prohibition
124(1)An employer must not dismiss, suspend, demote, discipline, harass or otherwise disadvantage an employee, or deny an employee a benefit of employment, by reason that
(a)the employee, acting in good faith and on the basis of reasonable belief, has disclosed to the Commissioner that the employer or any other person has contravened or intends to contravene Part 1;
(b)the employee, acting in good faith and on the basis of reasonable belief, has refused or stated an intention of refusing to do anything that is a contravention of Part 1;
(c)the employee, acting in good faith and on the basis of reasonable belief, has done or stated an intention of doing anything that is required to be done in order that Part 1 not be contravened; or
(d)the employer believes that the employee will do anything referred to in paragraph (a), (b) or (c).
Saving
(2)Nothing in this section impairs any right of an employee, either at law or under an employment contract or collective agreement.
Definitions of employee and employer
(3)In this section, employee includes an independent contractor and employer has a corresponding meaning.
Offence and punishment
125Every organization that knowingly contravenes section 58, subsection 60(1), section 69 or 75 or subsection 124(1) or an order under subsection 92(2) or that obstructs the Commissioner or the Commissioner’s delegate in the investigation of a complaint, in conducting an inquiry or in carrying out an audit is
(a)guilty of an indictable offence and liable to a fine not exceeding the higher of $25,000,000 and 5% of the organization’s gross global revenue in its financial year before the one in which the organization is sentenced; or
(b)guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction and liable to a fine not exceeding the higher of $20,000,000 and 4% of the organization’s gross global revenue in its financial year before the one in which the organization is sentenced.
Review by parliamentary committee
126(1)Five years after the day on which this section comes into force, and every five years after that, a comprehensive review of the provisions and operation of this Act is to be commenced by a committee of the Senate, of the House of Commons or of both Houses of Parliament that may be designated or established by the Senate, the House of Commons or both Houses of Parliament, as the case may be, for that purpose.
Report
(2)Within one year, or any further time that is authorized by the Senate, the House of Commons or both Houses of Parliament, as the case may be, after the day on which the review is commenced, the committee must submit a report on that review to the Senate, the House of Commons or both Houses of Parliament, as the case may be, together with a statement of any changes recommended by the committee.

Consequential and Related Amendments

2000, c. 5

Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act

3The long title of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act is replaced by the following:
An Act to provide for the use of electronic means to communicate or record information or transactions
2000, c. 17, par. 97(1)‍(b) and (d); 2001, c. 41, ss. 81, 82 and 103; 2002, c. 8, par. 183(1)‍(r); 2004, c. 15, s. 98; 2005, c. 46, s. 57; 2006, c. 9, s. 223; 2010, c. 23, ss. 82 to 84, 86(2) and 87; 2015, c. 32, ss. 2 to 7, 8(F), 9 to 17, 18(1) and (2)‍(E), 19, 20(1) and (2)‍(E), 21 to 24 and 26(2) and (3), c. 36, s. 164 and 165; 2019, c. 18, s. 61
4Sections 1 to 30 of the Act are replaced by the following:
Short title
1This Act may be cited as the Electronic Documents Act.
5Section 31 of the Act is amended by adding the following after subsection (2):
Designation of Minister
(3)The Governor in Council may, by order, designate a member of the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada as the Minister responsible for this Act.
6Parts 3 to 5 of the Act are repealed.
7Schedule 1 to the Act is repealed.
2015, c. 36, s. 166
8Schedule 4 to the Act is repealed.
R.‍S.‍, c. A-1

Access to Information Act

2015, c. 32, s. 25
9(1)Schedule II to the Access to Information Act is amended by striking out the reference to
Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act
Loi sur la protection des renseignements personnels et les documents électroniques
and the corresponding reference to “subsection 20(1.‍1)”.
(2)Schedule II to the Act is amended by adding, in alphabetical order, a reference to
Consumer Privacy Protection Act
Loi sur la protection de la vie privée des consommateurs
and a corresponding reference to “subsection 112(2)”.
R.‍S.‍, c. A-2

Aeronautics Act

2011, c. 9, s. 2(1)
10Subsection 4.‍83(1) of the Aeronautics Act is replaced by the following:
Foreign states requiring information
4.‍83(1)Despite Part 1 of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act, to the extent that that Part relates to obligations relating to the disclosure of information, an operator of an aircraft departing from Canada that is due to land in a foreign state or fly over the United States and land outside Canada or of a Canadian aircraft departing from any place outside Canada that is due to land in a foreign state or fly over the United States may, in accordance with the regulations, provide to a competent authority in that foreign state any information that is in the operator’s control relating to persons on board or expected to be on board the aircraft and that is required by the laws of the foreign state.
R.‍S.‍, c. C-5

Canada Evidence Act

2001, c. 41, s. 44
11Item 14 of the schedule to the Canada Evidence Act is replaced by the following:
14The Privacy Commissioner, for the purposes of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act
2001, c. 41, s. 44
12Item 17 of the schedule to the Act is replaced by the following:
17The Personal Information and Data Protection Tribunal, for the purposes of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act
R.‍S.‍, c. C-22

Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission Act

13The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission Act is amended by adding the following after section 12:
Agreements or arrangements — Privacy Commissioner
12.‍1(1)The Commission may enter into an agreement or arrangement with the Privacy Commissioner in order to
(a)undertake and publish research on issues of mutual interest; and
(b)develop procedures for disclosing information referred to in subsection (2).
Disclosure of information
(2)The Commission may, in accordance with any procedure established under paragraph (1)‍(b), disclose information to the Privacy Commissioner if the information is relevant to the Commissioner’s powers, duties or functions under the Consumer Privacy Protection Act.
Purpose and confidentiality
(3)The procedures referred to in paragraph (1)‍(b) shall
(a)restrict the use of the information to the purpose for which it was originally disclosed; and
(b)stipulate that the information be treated in a confidential manner and not be further disclosed without the express consent of the Commission.
R.‍S.‍, c. C-34; ; R.‍S.‍, c. 19 (2nd Supp.‍), s. 19

Competition Act

14The Competition Act is amended by adding the following after section 29.‍2:
Agreements or arrangements — Privacy Commissioner
29.‍3(1)Despite subsection 29(1), the Commissioner may enter into an agreement or arrangement with the Privacy Commissioner in order to
(a)undertake and publish research on issues of mutual interest; and
(b)develop procedures for disclosing information referred to in subsection (2).
Disclosure of information
(2)The Commissioner may, in accordance with any procedure established under paragraph (1)‍(b), disclose information to the Privacy Commissioner if the information is relevant to the Privacy Commissioner’s powers, duties or functions under the Consumer Privacy Protection Act.
Purpose and confidentiality
(3)The procedures referred to in paragraph (1)‍(b) shall
(a)restrict the use of the information to the purpose for which it was originally disclosed; and
(b)stipulate that the information be treated in a confidential manner and not be further disclosed without the express consent of the Commissioner.
R.‍S.‍, c. C-44; 1994, c. 24, s. 1(F)

Canada Business Corporations Act

2018, c. 27, s. 183
15Subsection 21.‍1(5) of the Canada Business Corporations Act is replaced by the following:
Disposal of personal information
(5)Within one year after the sixth anniversary of the day on which an individual ceases to be an individual with significant control over the corporation, the corporation shall — subject to any other Act of Parliament and to any Act of the legislature of a province that provides for a longer retention period — dispose of any of that individual’s personal information, as defined in section 2 of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act, that is recorded in the register.
2005, c. 46

Public Servants Disclosure Protection Act

16Paragraph 15(a) of the Public Servants Disclosure Protection Act is replaced by the following:
(a)Part 1 of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act, to the extent that that Part relates to obligations relating to the disclosure of information; and
17Subsection 16(1.‍1) of the Act is replaced by the following:
Limitation
(1.‍1)Subsection (1) does not apply in respect of information the disclosure of which is subject to any restriction created by or under any Act of Parliament, including the Consumer Privacy Protection Act.
18Section 50 of the Act is replaced by the following:
Personal information
50Despite Part 1 of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act, to the extent that that Part relates to obligations relating to the disclosure of information, and despite any other Act of Parliament that restricts the disclosure of information, a report by a chief executive in response to recommendations made by the Commissioner to the chief executive under this Act may include personal information within the meaning of section 2 of that Act, or section 3 of the Privacy Act, depending on which of those Acts applies to the portion of the public sector for which the chief executive is responsible.
2010, c. 23

Chapter 23 of the Statutes of Canada, 2010

19Section 2 of An Act to promote the efficiency and adaptability of the Canadian economy by regulating certain activities that discourage reliance on electronic means of carrying out commercial activities, and to amend the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission Act, the Competition Act, the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and the Telecommunications Act is replaced by the following:
Precedence of this Act
2In the event of a conflict between a provision of this Act and a provision of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act, the provision of this Act operates despite the provision of that Act, to the extent of the conflict.
20Paragraph 20(3)‍(c) of the Act is replaced by the following:
(c)the person’s history with respect to
(i)any previous violation of this Act,
(ii)any previous conduct that is reviewable under section 74.‍011 of the Competition Act,
(iii)any previous contravention of section 5 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, as it read immediately before the day on which section 4 of the Digital Charter Implementation Act, 2020 comes into force, that relates to a collection or use described in subsection 7.‍1(2) or (3) of that Act, and
(iv)any previous contravention of Part 1 of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act that relates to a collection or use described in subsection 52(2) or (3) of that Act;
21(1)Subsection 47(1) of the Act is replaced by the following:
Application
47(1)A person who alleges that they are affected by an act or omission that constitutes a contravention of any of sections 6 to 9 of this Act or a contravention of Part 1 of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act that relates to a collection or use described in subsection 52(2) or (3) of that Act — or that constitutes conduct that is reviewable under section 74.‍011 of the Competition Act — may apply to a court of competent jurisdiction for an order under section 51 against one or more persons whom they allege have committed the act or omission or whom they allege are liable for the contravention or reviewable conduct by reason of section 52 or 53.
(2)Subsection 47(4) of the Act is replaced by the following:
Notice
(4)The applicant must, without delay, serve a copy of the application on every person against whom an order is sought, on the Commission if the application identifies a contravention of this Act, on the Commissioner of Competition if the application identifies conduct that is reviewable under section 74.‍011 of the Competition Act and on the Privacy Commissioner if the application identifies a contravention of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act.
22Paragraph 50(c) of the Act is replaced by the following:
(c)the Privacy Commissioner, if the application identifies a contravention of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act.
23(1)Subparagraph 51(1)‍(b)‍(vi) of the Act is replaced by the following:
(vi)in the case of a contravention of Part 1 of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act that relates to a collection or use described in subsection 52(2) or (3) of that Act, $1,000,000 for each day on which a contravention occurred, and
(2)Subsection 51(2) of the Act is replaced by the following:
Purpose of order
(2)The purpose of an order under paragraph (1)‍(b) is to promote compliance with this Act, the Consumer Privacy Protection Act or the Competition Act, as the case may be, and not to punish.
(3)Paragraph 51(3)‍(c) of the Act is replaced by the following:
(c)the person’s history, or each person’s history, as the case may be, with respect to
(i)any previous contravention of this Act,
(ii)any previous contravention of section 5 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, as it read immediately before the day on which section 4 of the Digital Charter Implementation Act, 2020 comes into force, that relates to a collection or use described in subsection 7.‍1(2) or (3) of that Act,
(iii)any previous contravention of Part 1 of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act that relates to a collection or use described in subsection 52(2) or (3) of that Act, and
(iv)any previous conduct that is reviewable under section 74.‍011 of the Competition Act;
24Sections 52 to 54 of the Act are replaced by the following:
Directors and officers of corporations
52An officer, director or agent or mandatary of a corporation that commits a contravention of any of sections 6 to 9 of this Act or of Part 1 of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act that relates to a collection or use described in subsection 52(2) or (3) of that Act, or that engages in conduct that is reviewable under section 74.‍011 of the Competition Act, is liable for the contravention or reviewable conduct, as the case may be, if they directed, authorized, assented to, acquiesced in or participated in the commission of that contravention, or engaged in that conduct, whether or not the corporation is proceeded against.
Vicarious liability
53A person is liable for a contravention of any of sections 6 to 9 of this Act or of Part 1 of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act that relates to a collection or use described in subsection 52(2) or (3) of that Act, or for conduct that is reviewable under section 74.‍011 of the Competition Act, that is committed or engaged in, as the case may be, by their employee acting within the scope of their employment or their agent or mandatary acting within the scope of their authority, whether or not the employee or agent or mandatary is identified or proceeded against.
Defence
54(1)A person must not be found to have committed a contravention of any of sections 6 to 9 of this Act or of Part 1 of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act that relates to a collection or use described in subsection 52(2) or (3) of that Act, or to have engaged in conduct that is reviewable under section 74.‍011 of the Competition Act, if they establish that they exercised due diligence to prevent the contravention or conduct, as the case may be.
Common law principles
(2)Every rule and principle of the common law that makes any circumstance a justification or excuse in relation to a charge for an offence applies in respect of a contravention or conduct referred to in subsection (1), to the extent that it is not inconsistent with this Act or the Consumer Privacy Protection Act or the Competition Act, as the case may be.
25(1)The portion of section 56 of the Act before paragraph (a) is replaced by the following:
Disclosure by an organization
56Any organization to which the Consumer Privacy Protection Act applies may on its own initiative disclose to the Commission, the Commissioner of Competition or the Privacy Commissioner any information in its possession that it believes relates to
(2)Subparagraph 56(a)‍(iii) of the Act is replaced by the following:
(iii)Part 1 of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act, which contravention relates to a collection or use described in subsection 52(2) or (3) of that Act, or
26Section 57 of the Act is replaced by the following:
Consultation
57The Commission, the Commissioner of Competition and the Privacy Commissioner must consult with each other to the extent that they consider appropriate to ensure the effective regulation, under this Act, the Competition Act, the Consumer Privacy Protection Act and the Telecommunications Act, of commercial conduct that discourages the use of electronic means to carry out commercial activities, and to coordinate their activities under those Acts as they relate to the regulation of that type of conduct.
27(1)Paragraph 58(1)‍(a) of the Act is replaced by the following:
(a)to the Privacy Commissioner, if the Commission believes that the information relates to the exercise of the Privacy Commissioner’s powers or the performance of the Privacy Commissioner’s duties or functions under the Consumer Privacy Protection Act in respect of a collection or use described in subsection 52(2) or (3) of that Act; and
(2)Paragraph 58(2)‍(a) of the Act is replaced by the following:
(a)to the Privacy Commissioner, if the Commissioner of Competition believes that the information relates to the exercise of the Privacy Commissioner’s powers or the performance of the Privacy Commissioner’s duties or functions under the Consumer Privacy Protection Act in respect of a collection or use described in subsection 52(2) or (3) of that Act; and
(3)The portion of subsection 58(3) of the Act before paragraph (a) is replaced by the following:
Disclosure by Privacy Commissioner
(3)The Privacy Commissioner may disclose information obtained by the Privacy Commissioner in the exercise of the Privacy Commissioner’s powers or the performance of the Privacy Commissioner’s duties or functions under the Consumer Privacy Protection Act if the information relates to a collection or use described in subsection 52(2) or (3) of that Act or to an act alleged in a complaint in respect of which the Privacy Commissioner decides, under subsection 83(2) or 85(2) of that Act, to not conduct an investigation or to discontinue an investigation,
28Subsection 59(3) of the Act is replaced by the following:
Use of information by Privacy Commissioner
(3)The Privacy Commissioner may use the information that is disclosed to the Privacy Commissioner under paragraph 58(1)‍(a) or (2)‍(a) only for the purpose of exercising the Privacy Commissioner’s powers or performing the Privacy Commissioner’s duties or functions under the Consumer Privacy Protection Act in respect of a collection or use described in subsection 52(2) or (3) of that Act.
29(1)Subparagraph 60(1)‍(a)‍(ii) of the Act is replaced by the following:
(ii)conduct that contravenes Part 1 of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act and that relates to a collection or use described in subsection 52(2) or (3) of that Act,
(2)Subparagraph 60(1)‍(b)‍(iii) of the Act is replaced by the following:
(iii)the exercise by the Privacy Commissioner of the Privacy Commissioner’s powers or the performance of the Privacy Commissioner’s duties or functions under the Consumer Privacy Protection Act in respect of a collection or use described in subsection 52(2) or (3) of that Act, or
30Section 61 of the Act is replaced by the following:
Reports to Minister of Industry
61The Commission, the Commissioner of Competition and the Privacy Commissioner must provide the Minister of Industry with any reports that the Minister requests for the purpose of coordinating the implementation of sections 6 to 9 of this Act, sections 52.‍01 and 74.‍011 of the Competition Act and section 52 of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act.
2018, c. 10

Transportation Modernization Act

31Section 62 of the Transportation Modernization Act is amended by replacing the subsection 17.‍91(4) that it enacts with the following:
Consumer Privacy Protection Act and provincial legislation
(4)A company that collects, uses or communicates information under this section, section 17.‍31 or 17.‍94, subsection 28(1.‍1) or 36(2) or regulations made under section 17.‍95 may do so
(a)despite Part 1 of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act, to the extent that that Part relates to obligations relating to the collection, use, disclosure, retention and disposal of information; and
(b)despite any provision of provincial legislation that is substantially similar to that Act and that limits the collection, use, communication or preservation of information.

Terminology

Replacement of “Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act
32Every reference to the “Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act” is replaced by a reference to the “Electronic Documents Act” in the following provisions:
(a)the definition secure electronic signature in section 31.‍8 of the Canada Evidence Act;
(b)subsection 95(2) of the Canadian Forces Superannuation Act;
(c)subsections 252.‍6(2) and (3) of the Canada Business Corporations Act;
(d)subsection 74(2) of the Public Service Superannuation Act;
(e)subsection 44(2) of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Superannuation Act;
(f)subparagraph 205.‍124(1)‍(u)‍(ii) of the Canada–Newfoundland and Labrador Atlantic Accord Implementation Act;
(g)subparagraph 210.‍126(1)‍(u)‍(ii) of the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation Act;
(h)subsections 539.‍1(2) and (3) of the Trust and Loan Companies Act;
(i)subsections 1001(2) and (3) of the Bank Act;
(j)subsections 1043(2) and (3) of the Insurance Companies Act;
(k)subsections 487.‍1(2) and (3) of the Cooperative Credit Associations Act;
(l)subsections 361.‍6(2) and (3) of the Canada Cooperatives Act; and
(m)subsections 269(2) and (3) of the Canada Not-for-profit Corporations Act.

Transitional Provisions

Definitions
33(1)The following definitions apply in this section.
former Act means the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, as it read immediately before the day on which section 82 of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act, enacted by section 2, comes into force.‍ (ancienne loi)
new Act means the Consumer Privacy Protection Act.‍ (nouvelle loi)
Pending complaints
(2)If a complaint was filed or initiated under section 11 of the former Act before the day on which section 82 of the new Act comes into force and it has not been dealt with or disposed of on that day, the complaint is to be dealt with and disposed of in accordance with the former Act. However, if the Privacy Commissioner has reasonable grounds to believe that the contravention that is alleged in the complaint is continuing after that day, the complaint is to be dealt with and disposed of in accordance with the new Act.
Contraventions before coming into force
(3)If a complaint is filed or initiated on or after the day on which section 82 of the new Act comes into force in respect of a contravention that is alleged to have occurred before that day, the complaint is to be dealt with and disposed of in accordance with the former Act. However, if the Privacy Commissioner has reasonable grounds to believe that the contravention that is alleged in the complaint is continuing after that day, the complaint is to be dealt with and disposed of in accordance with the new Act.

Coordinating Amendments

2018, c. 10
34(1)In this section, other Act means the Transportation Modernization Act.
(2)If section 62 of the other Act comes into force before section 2 of this Act, then
(a)section 31 of this Act is repealed; and
(b)on the coming into force of section 2 of this Act, subsection 17.‍91(4) of the Railway Safety Act is replaced by the following:
Consumer Privacy Protection Act and provincial legislation
(4)A company that collects, uses or communicates information under this section, section 17.‍31 or 17.‍94, subsection 28(1.‍1) or 36(2) or regulations made under section 17.‍95 may do so
(a)despite Part 1 of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act, to the extent that that Part relates to obligations relating to the collection, use, disclosure, retention and disposal of information; and
(b)despite any provision of provincial legislation that is substantially similar to that Act and that limits the collection, use, communication or preservation of information.
(3)If section 62 of the other Act comes into force on the same day as section 31 of this Act, then that section 31 is deemed to have come into force before that section 62.

PART 2

Personal Information and Data Protection Tribunal Act

Enactment of Act

Enactment
35The Personal Information and Data Protection Tribunal Act is enacted as follows:
An Act to establish the Personal Information and Data Protection Tribunal
Short title
1This Act may be cited as the Personal Information and Data Protection Tribunal Act.
Definition of Minister
2In this Act, Minister means the member of the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada designated under section 3 or, if no member is designated, the Minister of Industry.
Order designating Minister
3The Governor in Council may, by order, designate any member of the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada to be the Minister for the purposes of this Act.
Establishment
4A tribunal to be called the Personal Information and Data Protection Tribunal (“the Tribunal”) is established.
Jurisdiction
5The Tribunal has jurisdiction in respect of all appeals that may be made under section 100 or 101 of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act and in respect of the imposition of penalties under section 94 of that Act.
Members
6(1)The Tribunal consists of three to six members to be appointed by the Governor in Council on the recommendation of the Minister.
Full- or part-time members
(2)Members may be appointed as full-time or part-time members.
Full-time occupation
(3)Full-time members must devote the whole of their time to the performance of their duties and functions under this Act.
Experience
(4)At least one of the members must have experience in the field of information and privacy law.
Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson
7The Governor in Council must designate one member as Chairperson of the Tribunal and may designate one member as Vice-Chairperson. The Chairperson must be a full-time member.
Duties of Chairperson
8(1)The Chairperson has supervision over, and direction of the work of the Tribunal, including
(a)the distribution of work among members and the assignment of members to hear matters brought before the Tribunal and, if the Chairperson considers it appropriate for matters to be heard by panels, the assignment of members to panels and to preside over panels; and
(b)the conduct of the work of the Tribunal and the management of its internal affairs.
Acting Chairperson
(2)In the event of the absence or incapacity of the Chairperson or if the office of Chairperson is vacant, the Vice-Chairperson acts as Chairperson.
Acting Chairperson
9In the event of the absence or incapacity of the Chairperson and the Vice-Chairperson or if both of those offices are vacant, a member of the Tribunal designated by the Minister acts as Chairperson. The designated member is not however authorized to act as Chairperson for a period of more than 90 days without the approval of the Governor in Council.
Term of office
10(1)A member is to be appointed to hold office during good behaviour for a term not exceeding five years and may be removed for cause by the Governor in Council.
Reappointment
(2)A member is eligible to be reappointed for one or more terms not exceeding three years each.
Disposition after expiry of appointment
(3)A member whose appointment expires may, at the request of the Chairperson and for a period of not more than six months, make or take part in a decision on a matter that they heard as a member. For that purpose, the former member is deemed to be a part-time member.
Remuneration
11(1)Members are to receive the remuneration that is fixed by the Governor in Council.
Expenses
(2)Each member is entitled to be paid reasonable travel and living expenses incurred while absent in the course of their duties from, in the case of a full-time member, their ordinary place of work and, in the case of a part-time member, their ordinary place of residence.
Status
(3)Members are deemed to be employees for the purposes of the Government Employees Compensation Act and to be employed in the federal public administration for the purposes of any regulations made under section 9 of the Aeronautics Act.
Public Service Superannuation Act
(4)Full-time members are also deemed to be persons employed in the public service for the purposes of the Public Service Superannuation Act.
Inconsistent interests
12If a member who is assigned to hear or is hearing any matter before the Tribunal, either alone or as a member of a panel, holds any pecuniary or other interest that could be inconsistent with the proper performance of their duties and functions in relation to the matter, the member must disclose the interest to the Chairperson without delay.
Principal office
13The principal office of the Tribunal must be in a place in Canada that is designated by the Governor in Council or, if no place is designated, in the National Capital Region described in the schedule to the National Capital Act.
Sittings
14The Tribunal is to sit at those times and places in Canada and in the manner that the Chairperson considers necessary for the proper performance of its duties and functions.
Nature of hearings
15(1)Subject to subsection (2), the Tribunal is not bound by any legal or technical rules of evidence in conducting a hearing in relation to any matter that comes before it and it must deal with all matters as informally and expeditiously as the circumstances and considerations of fairness and natural justice permit.
Restriction
(2)The Tribunal must not receive or accept as evidence anything that would be inadmissible in a court by reason of any privilege under the law of evidence.
Appearance
(3)A party to a proceeding before the Tribunal may appear in person or be represented by another person, including legal counsel.
Private hearings
(4)Hearings must be held in public. However, the Tribunal may hold all or any part of a hearing in private if it is of the opinion that
(a)a public hearing would not be in the public interest; or
(b)confidential information may be disclosed and the desirability of ensuring that the information is not publicly disclosed outweighs the desirability of adhering to the principle that hearings be open to the public.
Standard of proof
(5)In any proceeding before the Tribunal, a party that has the burden of proof discharges it by proof on the balance of probabilities.
Decision of panel
(6)A decision of the majority of the members of a panel referred to in paragraph 8(1)‍(a) is a decision of the Tribunal.
Powers
16The Tribunal and each of its members have all the powers of a commissioner under Part I of the Inquiries Act and the power to make interim decisions.
Reasons
17The Tribunal must provide a decision, with reasons, in writing to all parties to a proceeding.
Public availability — decisions
18(1)The Tribunal must make its decisions, and the reasons for them, publicly available in accordance with its rules.
Complainants
(2)If the Tribunal makes a decision in relation to a complaint filed under the Consumer Privacy Protection Act, the Tribunal must not make the complainant’s name or any personal information that could be used to identify the complainant publicly available without the complainant’s consent.
Rules
19(1)The Tribunal may, with the approval of the Governor in Council, make rules that are not inconsistent with this Act or the Consumer Privacy Protection Act to govern the management of its affairs and the practice and procedure in connection with matters brought before it, including rules respecting when decisions are to be made public and the factors to be taken into consideration in deciding whether to name an organization affected by a decision in the decision.
Public availability — rules
(2)The Tribunal must make its rules publicly available.
Costs
20(1)The Tribunal may, in accordance with its rules, award costs.
Certificate
(2)Costs under subsection (1) that have not been paid may be certified by the Tribunal.
Registration of certificate
(3)On production to the Federal Court, a certificate must be registered. When it is registered, a certificate has the same force and effect as if it were a judgment obtained in the Federal Court for a debt of the amount specified in it and all reasonable costs and charges attendant on its registration, recoverable in that Court or in any other court of competent jurisdiction.
Decisions final
21A decision of the Tribunal is final and binding and, except for judicial review under the Federal Courts Act, is not subject to appeal or to review by any court.
2014, c. 20, s. 376

Related Amendment to the Administrative Tribunals Support Service of Canada Act

36The schedule to the Administrative Tribunals Support Service of Canada Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order:
Personal Information and Data Protection Tribunal
Tribunal de la protection des renseignements personnels et des données

PART 3

Coming into Force
Order in council
37(1)Subject to subsections (2) and (3), this Act, other than section 34, comes into force on a day to be fixed by order of the Governor in Council.
Order in council
(2)Sections 72 and 120 of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act, enacted by section 2 of this Act, come into force on a day to be fixed by order of the Governor in Council.
Order in council
(3)Sections 76 to 81, paragraph 83(1)‍(d), subsection 93(3) and section 122 of the Consumer Privacy Protection Act, enacted by section 2 of this Act, come into force on a day to be fixed by order of the Governor in Council.


SCHEDULE

(Section 2)
SCHEDULE
(Subsection 6(3) and paragraph 119(2)‍(c))
Organizations
Column 1
Column 2
Item
Organization
Personal Information
1
World Anti-Doping Agency
Agence mondiale antidopage
Personal information that the organization collects, uses or discloses in the course of its interprovincial or international activities



explanatory notes

Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act
Clause 3:Existing text of the long title:
An Act to support and promote electronic commerce by protecting personal information that is collected, used or disclosed in certain circumstances, by providing for the use of electronic means to communicate or record information or transactions and by amending the Canada Evidence Act, the Statutory Instruments Act and the Statute Revision Act
Clause 4:Existing text of sections 1 to 30:
1This Act may be cited as the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act.
PART 1
Protection of Personal Information in the Private Sector
Interpretation
2(1)The definitions in this subsection apply in this Part.
alternative format, with respect to personal information, means a format that allows a person with a sensory disability to read or listen to the personal information.‍ (support de substitution)
breach of security safeguards means the loss of, unauthorized access to or unauthorized disclosure of personal information resulting from a breach of an organization’s security safeguards that are referred to in clause 4.‍7 of Schedule 1 or from a failure to establish those safeguards.‍ (atteinte aux mesures de sécurité)
business contact information means any information that is used for the purpose of communicating or facilitating communication with an individual in relation to their employment, business or profession such as the individual’s name, position name or title, work address, work telephone number, work fax number or work electronic address.‍ (coordonnées d’affaires)
business transaction includes
(a)the purchase, sale or other acquisition or disposition of an organization or a part of an organization, or any of its assets;
(b)the merger or amalgamation of two or more organizations;
(c)the making of a loan or provision of other financing to an organization or a part of an organization;
(d)the creating of a charge on, or the taking of a security interest in or a security on, any assets or securities of an organization;
(e)the lease or licensing of any of an organization’s assets; and
(f)any other prescribed arrangement between two or more organizations to conduct a business activity.‍ (transaction commerciale)
commercial activity means any particular transaction, act or conduct or any regular course of conduct that is of a commercial character, including the selling, bartering or leasing of donor, membership or other fundraising lists.‍ (activité commerciale)
Commissioner means the Privacy Commissioner appointed under section 53 of the Privacy Act.‍ (commissaire)
Court means the Federal Court.‍ (Cour)
federal work, undertaking or business means any work, undertaking or business that is within the legislative authority of Parliament. It includes
(a)a work, undertaking or business that is operated or carried on for or in connection with navigation and shipping, whether inland or maritime, including the operation of ships and transportation by ship anywhere in Canada;
(b)a railway, canal, telegraph or other work or undertaking that connects a province with another province, or that extends beyond the limits of a province;
(c)a line of ships that connects a province with another province, or that extends beyond the limits of a province;
(d)a ferry between a province and another province or between a province and a country other than Canada;
(e)aerodromes, aircraft or a line of air transportation;
(f)a radio broadcasting station;
(g)a bank or an authorized foreign bank as defined in section 2 of the Bank Act;
(h)a work that, although wholly situated within a province, is before or after its execution declared by Parliament to be for the general advantage of Canada or for the advantage of two or more provinces;
(i)a work, undertaking or business outside the exclusive legislative authority of the legislatures of the provinces; and
(j)a work, undertaking or business to which federal laws, within the meaning of section 2 of the Oceans Act, apply under section 20 of that Act and any regulations made under paragraph 26(1)‍(k) of that Act.‍ (entreprises fédérales)
organization includes an association, a partnership, a person and a trade union.‍ (organisation)
personal health information, with respect to an individual, whether living or deceased, means
(a)information concerning the physical or mental health of the individual;
(b)information concerning any health service provided to the individual;
(c)information concerning the donation by the individual of any body part or any bodily substance of the individual or information derived from the testing or examination of a body part or bodily substance of the individual;
(d)information that is collected in the course of providing health services to the individual; or
(e)information that is collected incidentally to the provision of health services to the individual.‍ (renseignement personnel sur la santé)
personal information means information about an identifiable individual.‍ (renseignement personnel)
prescribed means prescribed by regulation.‍ (Version anglaise seulement)
record includes any correspondence, memorandum, book, plan, map, drawing, diagram, pictorial or graphic work, photograph, film, microform, sound recording, videotape, machine-readable record and any other documentary material, regardless of physical form or characteristics, and any copy of any of those things.‍ (document)
(2)In this Part, a reference to clause 4.‍3 or 4.‍9 of Schedule 1 does not include a reference to the note that accompanies that clause.
Purpose
3The purpose of this Part is to establish, in an era in which technology increasingly facilitates the circulation and exchange of information, rules to govern the collection, use and disclosure of personal information in a manner that recognizes the right of privacy of individuals with respect to their personal information and the need of organizations to collect, use or disclose personal information for purposes that a reasonable person would consider appropriate in the circumstances.
Application
4(1)This Part applies to every organization in respect of personal information that
(a)the organization collects, uses or discloses in the course of commercial activities; or
(b)is about an employee of, or an applicant for employment with, the organization and that the organization collects, uses or discloses in connection with the operation of a federal work, undertaking or business.
(1.‍1)This Part applies to an organization set out in column 1 of Schedule 4 in respect of personal information set out in column 2.
(2)This Part does not apply to
(a)any government institution to which the Privacy Act applies;
(b)any individual in respect of personal information that the individual collects, uses or discloses for personal or domestic purposes and does not collect, use or disclose for any other purpose; or
(c)any organization in respect of personal information that the organization collects, uses or discloses for journalistic, artistic or literary purposes and does not collect, use or disclose for any other purpose.
*(3)Every provision of this Part applies despite any provision, enacted after this subsection comes into force, of any other Act of Parliament, unless the other Act expressly declares that that provision operates despite the provision of this Part.
*[Note: Subsection 4(3) in force January 1, 2001, see SI/2000-29.‍]
4.‍01This Part does not apply to an organization in respect of the business contact information of an individual that the organization collects, uses or discloses solely for the purpose of communicating or facilitating communication with the individual in relation to their employment, business or profession.
4.‍1(1)Where a certificate under section 38.‍13 of the Canada Evidence Act prohibiting the disclosure of personal information of a specific individual is issued before a complaint is filed by that individual under this Part in respect of a request for access to that information, the provisions of this Part respecting that individual’s right of access to his or her personal information do not apply to the information that is subject to the certificate.
(2)Notwithstanding any other provision of this Part, where a certificate under section 38.‍13 of the Canada Evidence Act prohibiting the disclosure of personal information of a specific individual is issued after the filing of a complaint under this Part in relation to a request for access to that information:
(a)all proceedings under this Part in respect of that information, including an investigation, audit, appeal or judicial review, are discontinued;
(b)the Commissioner shall not disclose the information and shall take all necessary precautions to prevent its disclosure; and
(c)the Commissioner shall, within 10 days after the certificate is published in the Canada Gazette, return the information to the organization that provided the information.
(3)The Commissioner and every person acting on behalf or under the direction of the Commissioner, in carrying out their functions under this Part, shall not disclose information subject to a certificate issued under section 38.‍13 of the Canada Evidence Act, and shall take every reasonable precaution to avoid the disclosure of that information.
(4)The Commissioner may not delegate the investigation of any complaint relating to information subject to a certificate issued under section 38.‍13 of the Canada Evidence Act except to one of a maximum of four officers or employees of the Commissioner specifically designated by the Commissioner for the purpose of conducting that investigation.
DIVISION 1
Protection of Personal Information
5(1)Subject to sections 6 to 9, every organization shall comply with the obligations set out in Schedule 1.
(2)The word should, when used in Schedule 1, indicates a recommendation and does not impose an obligation.
(3)An organization may collect, use or disclose personal information only for purposes that a reasonable person would consider are appropriate in the circumstances.
6The designation of an individual under clause 4.‍1 of Schedule 1 does not relieve the organization of the obligation to comply with the obligations set out in that Schedule.
6.‍1For the purposes of clause 4.‍3 of Schedule 1, the consent of an individual is only valid if it is reasonable to expect that an individual to whom the organization’s activities are directed would understand the nature, purpose and consequences of the collection, use or disclosure of the personal information to which they are consenting.
7(1)For the purpose of clause 4.‍3 of Schedule 1, and despite the note that accompanies that clause, an organization may collect personal information without the knowledge or consent of the individual only if
(a)the collection is clearly in the interests of the individual and consent cannot be obtained in a timely way;
(b)it is reasonable to expect that the collection with the knowledge or consent of the individual would compromise the availability or the accuracy of the information and the collection is reasonable for purposes related to investigating a breach of an agreement or a contravention of the laws of Canada or a province;
(b.‍1)it is contained in a witness statement and the collection is necessary to assess, process or settle an insurance claim;
(b.‍2)it was produced by the individual in the course of their employment, business or profession and the collection is consistent with the purposes for which the information was produced;
(c)the collection is solely for journalistic, artistic or literary purposes;
(d)the information is publicly available and is specified by the regulations; or
(e)the collection is made for the purpose of making a disclosure
(i)under subparagraph (3)‍(c.‍1)‍(i) or (d)‍(ii), or
(ii)that is required by law.
(2)For the purpose of clause 4.‍3 of Schedule 1, and despite the note that accompanies that clause, an organization may, without the knowledge or consent of the individual, use personal information only if
(a)in the course of its activities, the organization becomes aware of information that it has reasonable grounds to believe could be useful in the investigation of a contravention of the laws of Canada, a province or a foreign jurisdiction that has been, is being or is about to be committed, and the information is used for the purpose of investigating that contravention;
(b)it is used for the purpose of acting in respect of an emergency that threatens the life, health or security of an individual;
(b.‍1)the information is contained in a witness statement and the use is necessary to assess, process or settle an insurance claim;
(b.‍2)the information was produced by the individual in the course of their employment, business or profession and the use is consistent with the purposes for which the information was produced;
(c)it is used for statistical, or scholarly study or research, purposes that cannot be achieved without using the information, the information is used in a manner that will ensure its confidentiality, it is impracticable to obtain consent and the organization informs the Commissioner of the use before the information is used;
(c.‍1)it is publicly available and is specified by the regulations; or
(d)it was collected under paragraph (1)‍(a), (b) or (e).
(3)For the purpose of clause 4.‍3 of Schedule 1, and despite the note that accompanies that clause, an organization may disclose personal information without the knowledge or consent of the individual only if the disclosure is
(a)made to, in the Province of Quebec, an advocate or notary or, in any other province, a barrister or solicitor who is representing the organization;
(b)for the purpose of collecting a debt owed by the individual to the organization;
(c)required to comply with a subpoena or warrant issued or an order made by a court, person or body with jurisdiction to compel the production of information, or to comply with rules of court relating to the production of records;
(c.‍1)made to a government institution or part of a government institution that has made a request for the information, identified its lawful authority to obtain the information and indicated that
(i)it suspects that the information relates to national security, the defence of Canada or the conduct of international affairs,
(ii)the disclosure is requested for the purpose of enforcing any law of Canada, a province or a foreign jurisdiction, carrying out an investigation relating to the enforcement of any such law or gathering intelligence for the purpose of enforcing any such law,
(iii)the disclosure is requested for the purpose of administering any law of Canada or a province, or
(iv)the disclosure is requested for the purpose of communicating with the next of kin or authorized representative of an injured, ill or deceased individual;
(c.‍2)made to the government institution mentioned in section 7 of the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act as required by that section;
(d)made on the initiative of the organization to a government institution or a part of a government institution and the organization
(i)has reasonable grounds to believe that the information relates to a contravention of the laws of Canada, a province or a foreign jurisdiction that has been, is being or is about to be committed, or
(ii)suspects that the information relates to national security, the defence of Canada or the conduct of international affairs;
(d.‍1)made to another organization and is reasonable for the purposes of investigating a breach of an agreement or a contravention of the laws of Canada or a province that has been, is being or is about to be committed and it is reasonable to expect that disclosure with the knowledge or consent of the individual would compromise the investigation;
(d.‍2)made to another organization and is reasonable for the purposes of detecting or suppressing fraud or of preventing fraud that is likely to be committed and it is reasonable to expect that the disclosure with the knowledge or consent of the individual would compromise the ability to prevent, detect or suppress the fraud;
(d.‍3)made on the initiative of the organization to a government institution, a part of a government institution or the individual’s next of kin or authorized representative and
(i)the organization has reasonable grounds to believe that the individual has been, is or may be the victim of financial abuse,
(ii)the disclosure is made solely for purposes related to preventing or investigating the abuse, and
(iii)it is reasonable to expect that disclosure with the knowledge or consent of the individual would compromise the ability to prevent or investigate the abuse;
(d.‍4)necessary to identify the individual who is injured, ill or deceased, made to a government institution, a part of a government institution or the individual’s next of kin or authorized representative and, if the individual is alive, the organization informs that individual in writing without delay of the disclosure;
(e)made to a person who needs the information because of an emergency that threatens the life, health or security of an individual and, if the individual whom the information is about is alive, the organization informs that individual in writing without delay of the disclosure;
(e.‍1)of information that is contained in a witness statement and the disclosure is necessary to assess, process or settle an insurance claim;
(e.‍2)of information that was produced by the individual in the course of their employment, business or profession and the disclosure is consistent with the purposes for which the information was produced;
(f)for statistical, or scholarly study or research, purposes that cannot be achieved without disclosing the information, it is impracticable to obtain consent and the organization informs the Commissioner of the disclosure before the information is disclosed;
(g)made to an institution whose functions include the conservation of records of historic or archival importance, and the disclosure is made for the purpose of such conservation;
(h)made after the earlier of
(i)one hundred years after the record containing the information was created, and
(ii)twenty years after the death of the individual whom the information is about;
(h.‍1)of information that is publicly available and is specified by the regulations; or
(h.‍2)[Repealed, 2015, c. 32, s. 6]
(i)required by law.
(4)Despite clause 4.‍5 of Schedule 1, an organization may use personal information for purposes other than those for which it was collected in any of the circumstances set out in subsection (2).
(5)Despite clause 4.‍5 of Schedule 1, an organization may disclose personal information for purposes other than those for which it was collected in any of the circumstances set out in paragraphs (3)‍(a) to (h.‍1).
7.‍1(1)The following definitions apply in this section.
access means to program, to execute programs on, to communicate with, to store data in, to retrieve data from, or to otherwise make use of any resources, including data or programs on a computer system or a computer network.‍ (utiliser)
computer program has the same meaning as in subsection 342.‍1(2) of the Criminal Code.‍ (programme d’ordinateur)
computer system has the same meaning as in subsection 342.‍1(2) of the Criminal Code.‍ (ordinateur)
electronic address means an address used in connection with
(a)an electronic mail account;
(b)an instant messaging account; or
(c)any similar account.‍ (adresse électronique)
(2)Paragraphs 7(1)‍(a) and (b.‍1) to (d) and (2)‍(a) to (c.‍1) and the exception set out in clause 4.‍3 of Schedule 1 do not apply in respect of
(a)the collection of an individual’s electronic address, if the address is collected by the use of a computer program that is designed or marketed primarily for use in generating or searching for, and collecting, electronic addresses; or
(b)the use of an individual’s electronic address, if the address is collected by the use of a computer program described in paragraph (a).
(3)Paragraphs 7(1)‍(a) to (d) and (2)‍(a) to (c.‍1) and the exception set out in clause 4.‍3 of Schedule 1 do not apply in respect of
(a)the collection of personal information, through any means of telecommunication, if the collection is made by accessing a computer system or causing a computer system to be accessed in contravention of an Act of Parliament; or
(b)the use of personal information that is collected in a manner described in paragraph (a).
7.‍2(1)In addition to the circumstances set out in subsections 7(2) and (3), for the purpose of clause 4.‍3 of Schedule 1, and despite the note that accompanies that clause, organizations that are parties to a prospective business transaction may use and disclose personal information without the knowledge or consent of the individual if
(a)the organizations have entered into an agreement that requires the organization that receives the personal information
(i)to use and disclose that information solely for purposes related to the transaction,
(ii)to protect that information by security safeguards appropriate to the sensitivity of the information, and
(iii)if the transaction does not proceed, to return that information to the organization that disclosed it, or destroy it, within a reasonable time; and
(b)the personal information is necessary
(i)to determine whether to proceed with the transaction, and
(ii)if the determination is made to proceed with the transaction, to complete it.
(2)In addition to the circumstances set out in subsections 7(2) and (3), for the purpose of clause 4.‍3 of Schedule 1, and despite the note that accompanies that clause, if the business transaction is completed, organizations that are parties to the transaction may use and disclose personal information, which was disclosed under subsection (1), without the knowledge or consent of the individual if
(a)the organizations have entered into an agreement that requires each of them
(i)to use and disclose the personal information under its control solely for the purposes for which the personal information was collected, permitted to be used or disclosed before the transaction was completed,
(ii)to protect that information by security safeguards appropriate to the sensitivity of the information, and
(iii)to give effect to any withdrawal of consent made under clause 4.‍3.‍8 of Schedule 1;
(b)the personal information is necessary for carrying on the business or activity that was the object of the transaction; and
(c)one of the parties notifies the individual, within a reasonable time after the transaction is completed, that the transaction has been completed and that their personal information has been disclosed under subsection (1).
(3)An organization shall comply with the terms of any agreement into which it enters under paragraph (1)‍(a) or (2)‍(a).
(4)Subsections (1) and (2) do not apply to a business transaction of which the primary purpose or result is the purchase, sale or other acquisition or disposition, or lease, of personal information.
7.‍3In addition to the circumstances set out in section 7, for the purpose of clause 4.‍3 of Schedule 1, and despite the note that accompanies that clause, a federal work, undertaking or business may collect, use and disclose personal information without the consent of the individual if
(a)the collection, use or disclosure is necessary to establish, manage or terminate an employment relationship between the federal work, undertaking or business and the individual; and
(b)the federal work, undertaking or business has informed the individual that the personal information will be or may be collected, used or disclosed for those purposes.
7.‍4(1)Despite clause 4.‍5 of Schedule 1, an organization may use personal information for purposes other than those for which it was collected in any of the circumstances set out in subsection 7.‍2(1) or (2) or section 7.‍3.
(2)Despite clause 4.‍5 of Schedule 1, an organization may disclose personal information for purposes other than those for which it was collected in any of the circumstances set out in subsection 7.‍2(1) or (2) or section 7.‍3.
8(1)A request under clause 4.‍9 of Schedule 1 must be made in writing.
(2)An organization shall assist any individual who informs the organization that they need assistance in preparing a request to the organization.
(3)An organization shall respond to a request with due diligence and in any case not later than thirty days after receipt of the request.
(4)An organization may extend the time limit
(a)for a maximum of thirty days if
(i)meeting the time limit would unreasonably interfere with the activities of the organization, or
(ii)the time required to undertake any consultations necessary to respond to the request would make the time limit impracticable to meet; or
(b)for the period that is necessary in order to be able to convert the personal information into an alternative format.
In either case, the organization shall, no later than thirty days after the date of the request, send a notice of extension to the individual, advising them of the new time limit, the reasons for extending the time limit and of their right to make a complaint to the Commissioner in respect of the extension.
(5)If the organization fails to respond within the time limit, the organization is deemed to have refused the request.
(6)An organization may respond to an individual’s request at a cost to the individual only if
(a)the organization has informed the individual of the approximate cost; and
(b)the individual has advised the organization that the request is not being withdrawn.
(7)An organization that responds within the time limit and refuses a request shall inform the individual in writing of the refusal, setting out the reasons and any recourse that they may have under this Part.
(8)Despite clause 4.‍5 of Schedule 1, an organization that has personal information that is the subject of a request shall retain the information for as long as is necessary to allow the individual to exhaust any recourse under this Part that they may have.
9(1)Despite clause 4.‍9 of Schedule 1, an organization shall not give an individual access to personal information if doing so would likely reveal personal information about a third party. However, if the information about the third party is severable from the record containing the information about the individual, the organization shall sever the information about the third party before giving the individual access.
(2)Subsection (1) does not apply if the third party consents to the access or the individual needs the information because an individual’s life, health or security is threatened.
(2.‍1)An organization shall comply with subsection (2.‍2) if an individual requests that the organization
(a)inform the individual about
(i)any disclosure of information to a government institution or a part of a government institution under paragraph 7(3)‍(c), subparagraph 7(3)‍(c.‍1)‍(i) or (ii) or paragraph 7(3)‍(c.‍2) or (d), or
(ii)the existence of any information that the organization has relating to a disclosure referred to in subparagraph (i), to a subpoena, warrant or order referred to in paragraph 7(3)‍(c) or to a request made by a government institution or a part of a government institution under subparagraph 7(3)‍(c.‍1)‍(i) or (ii); or
(b)give the individual access to the information referred to in subparagraph (a)‍(ii).
(2.‍2)An organization to which subsection (2.‍1) applies
(a)shall, in writing and without delay, notify the institution or part concerned of the request made by the individual; and
(b)shall not respond to the request before the earlier of
(i)the day on which it is notified under subsection (2.‍3), and
(ii)thirty days after the day on which the institution or part was notified.
(2.‍3)Within thirty days after the day on which it is notified under subsection (2.‍2), the institution or part shall notify the organization whether or not the institution or part objects to the organization complying with the request. The institution or part may object only if the institution or part is of the opinion that compliance with the request could reasonably be expected to be injurious to
(a)national security, the defence of Canada or the conduct of international affairs;
(a.‍1)the detection, prevention or deterrence of money laundering or the financing of terrorist activities; or
(b)the enforcement of any law of Canada, a province or a foreign jurisdiction, an investigation relating to the enforcement of any such law or the gathering of intelligence for the purpose of enforcing any such law.
(2.‍4)Despite clause 4.‍9 of Schedule 1, if an organization is notified under subsection (2.‍3) that the institution or part objects to the organization complying with the request, the organization
(a)shall refuse the request to the extent that it relates to paragraph (2.‍1)‍(a) or to information referred to in subparagraph (2.‍1)‍(a)‍(ii);
(b)shall notify the Commissioner, in writing and without delay, of the refusal; and
(c)shall not disclose to the individual
(i)any information that the organization has relating to a disclosure to a government institution or a part of a government institution under paragraph 7(3)‍(c), subparagraph 7(3)‍(c.‍1)‍(i) or (ii) or paragraph 7(3)‍(c.‍2) or (d) or to a request made by a government institution under either of those subparagraphs,
(ii)that the organization notified an institution or part under paragraph (2.‍2)‍(a) or the Commissioner under paragraph (b), or
(iii)that the institution or part objects.
(3)Despite the note that accompanies clause 4.‍9 of Schedule 1, an organization is not required to give access to personal information only if
(a)the information is protected by solicitor-client privilege or the professional secrecy of advocates and notaries or by litigation privilege;
(b)to do so would reveal confidential commercial information;
(c)to do so could reasonably be expected to threaten the life or security of another individual;
(c.‍1)the information was collected under paragraph 7(1)‍(b);
(d)the information was generated in the course of a formal dispute resolution process; or
(e)the information was created for the purpose of making a disclosure under the Public Servants Disclosure Protection Act or in the course of an investigation into a disclosure under that Act.
However, in the circumstances described in paragraph (b) or (c), if giving access to the information would reveal confidential commercial information or could reasonably be expected to threaten the life or security of another individual, as the case may be, and that information is severable from the record containing any other information for which access is requested, the organization shall give the individual access after severing.
(4)Subsection (3) does not apply if the individual needs the information because an individual’s life, health or security is threatened.
(5)If an organization decides not to give access to personal information in the circumstances set out in paragraph (3)‍(c.‍1), the organization shall, in writing, so notify the Commissioner, and shall include in the notification any information that the Commissioner may specify.
10An organization shall give access to personal information in an alternative format to an individual with a sensory disability who has a right of access to personal information under this Part and who requests that it be transmitted in the alternative format if
(a)a version of the information already exists in that format; or
(b)its conversion into that format is reasonable and necessary in order for the individual to be able to exercise rights under this Part.
DIVISION 1.‍1
Breaches of Security Safeguards
10.‍1(1)An organization shall report to the Commissioner any breach of security safeguards involving personal information under its control if it is reasonable in the circumstances to believe that the breach creates a real risk of significant harm to an individual.
(2)The report shall contain the prescribed information and shall be made in the prescribed form and manner as soon as feasible after the organization determines that the breach has occurred.
(3)Unless otherwise prohibited by law, an organization shall notify an individual of any breach of security safeguards involving the individual’s personal information under the organization’s control if it is reasonable in the circumstances to believe that the breach creates a real risk of significant harm to the individual.
(4)The notification shall contain sufficient information to allow the individual to understand the significance to them of the breach and to take steps, if any are possible, to reduce the risk of harm that could result from it or to mitigate that harm. It shall also contain any other prescribed information.
(5)The notification shall be conspicuous and shall be given directly to the individual in the prescribed form and manner, except in prescribed circumstances, in which case it shall be given indirectly in the prescribed form and manner.
(6)The notification shall be given as soon as feasible after the organization determines that the breach has occurred.
(7)For the purpose of this section, significant harm includes bodily harm, humiliation, damage to reputation or relationships, loss of employment, business or professional opportunities, financial loss, identity theft, negative effects on the credit record and damage to or loss of property.
(8)The factors that are relevant to determining whether a breach of security safeguards creates a real risk of significant harm to the individual include
(a)the sensitivity of the personal information involved in the breach;
(b)the probability that the personal information has been, is being or will be misused; and
(c)any other prescribed factor.
10.‍2(1)An organization that notifies an individual of a breach of security safeguards under subsection 10.‍1(3) shall notify any other organization, a government institution or a part of a government institution of the breach if the notifying organization believes that the other organization or the government institution or part concerned may be able to reduce the risk of harm that could result from it or mitigate that harm, or if any of the prescribed conditions are satisfied.
(2)The notification shall be given as soon as feasible after the organization determines that the breach has occurred.
(3)In addition to the circumstances set out in subsection 7(3), for the purpose of clause 4.‍3 of Schedule 1, and despite the note that accompanies that clause, an organization may disclose personal information without the knowledge or consent of the individual if
(a)the disclosure is made to the other organization, the government institution or the part of a government institution that was notified of the breach under subsection (1); and
(b)the disclosure is made solely for the purposes of reducing the risk of harm to the individual that could result from the breach or mitigating that harm.
(4)Despite clause 4.‍5 of Schedule 1, an organization may disclose personal information for purposes other than those for which it was collected in the circumstance set out in subsection (3).
10.‍3(1)An organization shall, in accordance with any prescribed requirements, keep and maintain a record of every breach of security safeguards involving personal information under its control.
(2)An organization shall, on request, provide the Commissioner with access to, or a copy of, a record.
DIVISION 2
Remedies
Filing of Complaints
11(1)An individual may file with the Commissioner a written complaint against an organization for contravening a provision of Division 1 or 1.‍1 or for not following a recommendation set out in Schedule 1.
(2)If the Commissioner is satisfied that there are reasonable grounds to investigate a matter under this Part, the Commissioner may initiate a complaint in respect of the matter.
(3)A complaint that results from the refusal to grant a request under section 8 must be filed within six months, or any longer period that the Commissioner allows, after the refusal or after the expiry of the time limit for responding to the request, as the case may be.
(4)The Commissioner shall give notice of a complaint to the organization against which the complaint was made.
Investigations of Complaints
12(1)The Commissioner shall conduct an investigation in respect of a complaint, unless the Commissioner is of the opinion that
(a)the complainant ought first to exhaust grievance or review procedures otherwise reasonably available;
(b)the complaint could more appropriately be dealt with, initially or completely, by means of a procedure provided for under the laws of Canada, other than this Part, or the laws of a province; or
(c)the complaint was not filed within a reasonable period after the day on which the subject matter of the complaint arose.
(2)Despite subsection (1), the Commissioner is not required to conduct an investigation in respect of an act alleged in a complaint if the Commissioner is of the opinion that the act, if proved, would constitute a contravention of any of sections 6 to 9 of An Act to promote the efficiency and adaptability of the Canadian economy by regulating certain activities that discourage reliance on electronic means of carrying out commercial activities, and to amend the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission Act, the Competition Act, the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and the Telecommunications Act or section 52.‍01 of the Competition Act or would constitute conduct that is reviewable under section 74.‍011 of that Act.
(3)The Commissioner shall notify the complainant and the organization that the Commissioner will not investigate the complaint or any act alleged in the complaint and give reasons.
(4)The Commissioner may reconsider a decision not to investigate under subsection (1), if the Commissioner is satisfied that the complainant has established that there are compelling reasons to investigate.
12.‍1(1)In the conduct of an investigation of a complaint, the Commissioner may
(a)summon and enforce the appearance of persons before the Commissioner and compel them to give oral or written evidence on oath and to produce any records and things that the Commissioner considers necessary to investigate the complaint, in the same manner and to the same extent as a superior court of record;
(b)administer oaths;
(c)receive and accept any evidence and other information, whether on oath, by affidavit or otherwise, that the Commissioner sees fit, whether or not it is or would be admissible in a court of law;
(d)at any reasonable time, enter any premises, other than a dwelling-house, occupied by an organization on satisfying any security requirements of the organization relating to the premises;
(e)converse in private with any person in any premises entered under paragraph (d) and otherwise carry out in those premises any inquiries that the Commissioner sees fit; and
(f)examine or obtain copies of or extracts from records found in any premises entered under paragraph (d) that contain any matter relevant to the investigation.
(2)The Commissioner may attempt to resolve complaints by means of dispute resolution mechanisms such as mediation and conciliation.
(3)The Commissioner may delegate any of the powers set out in subsection (1) or (2).
(4)The Commissioner or the delegate shall return to a person or an organization any record or thing that they produced under this section within 10 days after they make a request to the Commissioner or the delegate, but nothing precludes the Commissioner or the delegate from again requiring that the record or thing be produced.
(5)Any person to whom powers set out in subsection (1) are delegated shall be given a certificate of the delegation and the delegate shall produce the certificate, on request, to the person in charge of any premises to be entered under paragraph (1)‍(d).
Discontinuance of Investigation
12.‍2(1)The Commissioner may discontinue the investigation of a complaint if the Commissioner is of the opinion that
(a)there is insufficient evidence to pursue the investigation;
(b)the complaint is trivial, frivolous or vexatious or is made in bad faith;
(c)the organization has provided a fair and reasonable response to the complaint;
(c.‍1)the matter is the object of a compliance agreement entered into under subsection 17.‍1(1);
(d)the matter is already the object of an ongoing investigation under this Part;
(e)the matter has already been the subject of a report by the Commissioner;
(f)any of the circumstances mentioned in paragraph 12(1)‍(a), (b) or (c) apply; or
(g)the matter is being or has already been addressed under a procedure referred to in paragraph 12(1)‍(a) or (b).
(2)The Commissioner may discontinue an investigation in respect of an act alleged in a complaint if the Commissioner is of the opinion that the act, if proved, would constitute a contravention of any of sections 6 to 9 of An Act to promote the efficiency and adaptability of the Canadian economy by regulating certain activities that discourage reliance on electronic means of carrying out commercial activities, and to amend the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission Act, the Competition Act, the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and the Telecommunications Act or section 52.‍01 of the Competition Act or would constitute conduct that is reviewable under section 74.‍011 of that Act.
(3)The Commissioner shall notify the complainant and the organization that the investigation has been discontinued and give reasons.
Commissioner’s Report
13(1)The Commissioner shall, within one year after the day on which a complaint is filed or is initiated by the Commissioner, prepare a report that contains
(a)the Commissioner’s findings and recommendations;
(b)any settlement that was reached by the parties;
(c)if appropriate, a request that the organization give the Commissioner, within a specified time, notice of any action taken or proposed to be taken to implement the recommendations contained in the report or reasons why no such action has been or is proposed to be taken; and
(d)the recourse, if any, that is available under section 14.
(2)[Repealed, 2010, c. 23, s. 84]
(3)The report shall be sent to the complainant and the organization without delay.
Hearing by Court
14(1)A complainant may, after receiving the Commissioner’s report or being notified under subsection 12.‍2(3) that the investigation of the complaint has been discontinued, apply to the Court for a hearing in respect of any matter in respect of which the complaint was made, or that is referred to in the Commissioner’s report, and that is referred to in clause 4.‍1.‍3, 4.‍2, 4.‍3.‍3, 4.‍4, 4.‍6, 4.‍7 or 4.‍8 of Schedule 1, in clause 4.‍3, 4.‍5 or 4.‍9 of that Schedule as modified or clarified by Division 1 or 1.‍1, in subsection 5(3) or 8(6) or (7), in section 10 or in Division 1.‍1.
(2)A complainant shall make an application within one year after the report or notification is sent or within any longer period that the Court may, either before or after the expiry of that year, allow.
(3)For greater certainty, subsections (1) and (2) apply in the same manner to complaints referred to in subsection 11(2) as to complaints referred to in subsection 11(1).
15The Commissioner may, in respect of a complaint that the Commissioner did not initiate,
(a)apply to the Court, within the time limited by section 14, for a hearing in respect of any matter described in that section, if the Commissioner has the consent of the complainant;
(b)appear before the Court on behalf of any complainant who has applied for a hearing under section 14; or
(c)with leave of the Court, appear as a party to any hearing applied for under section 14.
16The Court may, in addition to any other remedies it may give,
(a)order an organization to correct its practices in order to comply with Divisions 1 and 1.‍1;
(b)order an organization to publish a notice of any action taken or proposed to be taken to correct its practices, whether or not ordered to correct them under paragraph (a); and
(c)award damages to the complainant, including damages for any humiliation that the complainant has suffered.
17(1)An application made under section 14 or 15 shall be heard and determined without delay and in a summary way unless the Court considers it inappropriate to do so.
(2)In any proceedings arising from an application made under section 14 or 15, the Court shall take every reasonable precaution, including, when appropriate, receiving representations ex parte and conducting hearings in camera, to avoid the disclosure by the Court or any person of any information or other material that the organization would be authorized to refuse to disclose if it were requested under clause 4.‍9 of Schedule 1.
Compliance Agreements
17.‍1(1)If the Commissioner believes on reasonable grounds that an organization has committed, is about to commit or is likely to commit an act or omission that could constitute a contravention of a provision of Division 1 or 1.‍1 or a failure to follow a recommendation set out in Schedule 1, the Commissioner may enter into a compliance agreement, aimed at ensuring compliance with this Part, with that organization.
(2)A compliance agreement may contain any terms that the Commissioner considers necessary to ensure compliance with this Part.
(3)When a compliance agreement is entered into, the Commissioner, in respect of any matter covered under the agreement,
(a)shall not apply to the Court for a hearing under subsection 14(1) or paragraph 15(a); and
(b)shall apply to the court for the suspension of any pending applications that were made by the Commissioner under those provisions.
(4)For greater certainty, a compliance agreement does not preclude
(a)an individual from applying for a hearing under section 14; or
(b)the prosecution of an offence under the Act.
17.‍2(1)If the Commissioner is of the opinion that a compliance agreement has been complied with, the Commissioner shall provide written notice to that effect to the organization and withdraw any applications that were made under subsection 14(1) or paragraph 15(a) in respect of any matter covered under the agreement.
(2)If the Commissioner is of the opinion that an organization is not complying with the terms of a compliance agreement, the Commissioner shall notify the organization and may apply to the Court for
(a)an order requiring the organization to comply with the terms of the agreement, in addition to any other remedies it may give; or
(b)a hearing under subsection 14(1) or paragraph 15(a) or to reinstate proceedings that have been suspended as a result of an application made under paragraph 17.‍1(3)‍(b).
(3)Despite subsection 14(2), the application shall be made within one year after notification is sent or within any longer period that the Court may, either before or after the expiry of that year, allow.
DIVISION 3
Audits
18(1)The Commissioner may, on reasonable notice and at any reasonable time, audit the personal information management practices of an organization if the Commissioner has reasonable grounds to believe that the organization has contravened a provision of Division 1 or 1.‍1 or is not following a recommendation set out in Schedule 1, and for that purpose may
(a)summon and enforce the appearance of persons before the Commissioner and compel them to give oral or written evidence on oath and to produce any records and things that the Commissioner considers necessary for the audit, in the same manner and to the same extent as a superior court of record;
(b)administer oaths;
(c)receive and accept any evidence and other information, whether on oath, by affidavit or otherwise, that the Commissioner sees fit, whether or not it is or would be admissible in a court of law;
(d)at any reasonable time, enter any premises, other than a dwelling-house, occupied by the organization on satisfying any security requirements of the organization relating to the premises;
(e)converse in private with any person in any premises entered under paragraph (d) and otherwise carry out in those premises any inquiries that the Commissioner sees fit; and
(f)examine or obtain copies of or extracts from records found in any premises entered under paragraph (d) that contain any matter relevant to the audit.
(2)The Commissioner may delegate any of the powers set out in subsection (1).
(3)The Commissioner or the delegate shall return to a person or an organization any record or thing they produced under this section within ten days after they make a request to the Commissioner or the delegate, but nothing precludes the Commissioner or the delegate from again requiring that the record or thing be produced.
(4)Any person to whom powers set out in subsection (1) are delegated shall be given a certificate of the delegation and the delegate shall produce the certificate, on request, to the person in charge of any premises to be entered under paragraph (1)‍(d).
19(1)After an audit, the Commissioner shall provide the audited organization with a report that contains the findings of the audit and any recommendations that the Commissioner considers appropriate.
(2)The report may be included in a report made under section 25.
DIVISION 4
General
20(1)Subject to subsections (2) to (7), 12(3), 12.‍2(3), 13(3), 19(1), 23(3) and 23.‍1(1) and section 25, the Commissioner or any person acting on behalf or under the direction of the Commissioner shall not disclose any information that comes to their knowledge as a result of the performance or exercise of any of the Commissioner’s duties or powers under this Part other than those referred to in subsection 10.‍1(1) or 10.‍3(2).
(1.‍1)Subject to subsections (2) to (7), 12(3), 12.‍2(3), 13(3), 19(1), 23(3) and 23.‍1(1) and section 25, the Commissioner or any person acting on behalf or under the direction of the Commissioner shall not disclose any information contained in a report made under subsection 10.‍1(1) or in a record obtained under subsection 10.‍3(2).
(2)The Commissioner may, if the Commissioner considers that it is in the public interest to do so, make public any information that comes to his or her knowledge in the performance or exercise of any of his or her duties or powers under this Part.
(3)The Commissioner may disclose, or may authorize any person acting on behalf or under the direction of the Commissioner to disclose, information that in the Commissioner’s opinion is necessary to
(a)conduct an investigation or audit under this Part; or
(b)establish the grounds for findings and recommendations contained in any report under this Part.
(4)The Commissioner may disclose, or may authorize any person acting on behalf or under the direction of the Commissioner to disclose, information in the course of
(a)a prosecution for an offence under section 28;
(b)a prosecution for an offence under section 132 of the Criminal Code (perjury) in respect of a statement made under this Part;
(c)a hearing before the Court under this Part;
(d)an appeal from a decision of the Court; or
(e)a judicial review in relation to the performance or exercise of any of the Commissioner’s duties or powers under this Part.
(5)The Commissioner may disclose to the Attorney General of Canada or of a province, as the case may be, information relating to the commission of an offence against any law of Canada or a province on the part of an officer or employee of an organization if, in the Commissioner’s opinion, there is evidence of an offence.
(6)The Commissioner may disclose, or may authorize any person acting on behalf or under the direction of the Commissioner to disclose to a government institution or a part of a government institution, any information contained in a report made under subsection 10.‍1(1) or in a record obtained under subsection 10.‍3(2) if the Commissioner has reasonable grounds to believe that the information could be useful in the investigation of a contravention of the laws of Canada or a province that has been, is being or is about to be committed.
(7)The Commissioner may disclose information, or may authorize any person acting on behalf or under the direction of the Commissioner to disclose information, in the course of proceedings in which the Commissioner has intervened under paragraph 50(c) of An Act to promote the efficiency and adaptability of the Canadian economy by regulating certain activities that discourage reliance on electronic means of carrying out commercial activities, and to amend the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission Act, the Competition Act, the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and the Telecommunications Act or in accordance with subsection 58(3) or 60(1) of that Act.
21The Commissioner or person acting on behalf or under the direction of the Commissioner is not a competent witness in respect of any matter that comes to their knowledge as a result of the performance or exercise of any of the Commissioner’s duties or powers under this Part in any proceeding other than
(a)a prosecution for an offence under section 28;
(b)a prosecution for an offence under section 132 of the Criminal Code (perjury) in respect of a statement made under this Part;
(c)a hearing before the Court under this Part; or
(d)an appeal from a decision of the Court.
22(1)No criminal or civil proceedings lie against the Commissioner, or against any person acting on behalf or under the direction of the Commissioner, for anything done, reported or said in good faith as a result of the performance or exercise or purported performance or exercise of any duty or power of the Commissioner under this Part.
(2)No action lies in defamation with respect to
(a)anything said, any information supplied or any record or thing produced in good faith in the course of an investigation or audit carried out by or on behalf of the Commissioner under this Part; and
(b)any report made in good faith by the Commissioner under this Part and any fair and accurate account of the report made in good faith for the purpose of news reporting.
23(1)If the Commissioner considers it appropriate to do so, or on the request of an interested person, the Commissioner may, in order to ensure that personal information is protected in as consistent a manner as possible, consult with any person who, under provincial legislation, has functions and duties similar to those of the Commissioner with respect to the protection of such information.
(2)The Commissioner may enter into agreements or arrangements with any person referred to in subsection (1) in order to
(a)coordinate the activities of their offices and the office of the Commissioner, including to provide for mechanisms for the handling of any complaint in which they are mutually interested;
(b)undertake and publish research or develop and publish guidelines or other instruments related to the protection of personal information;
(c)develop model contracts or other instruments for the protection of personal information that is collected, used or disclosed interprovincially or internationally; and
(d)develop procedures for sharing information referred to in subsection (3).
(3)The Commissioner may, in accordance with any procedure established under paragraph (2)‍(d), share information with any person referred to in subsection (1), if the information
(a)could be relevant to an ongoing or potential investigation of a complaint or audit under this Part or provincial legislation that has objectives that are similar to this Part; or
(b)could assist the Commissioner or that person in the exercise of their functions and duties with respect to the protection of personal information.
(4)The procedures referred to in paragraph (2)‍(d) shall
(a)restrict the use of the information to the purpose for which it was originally shared; and
(b)stipulate that the information be treated in a confidential manner and not be further disclosed without the express consent of the Commissioner.
23.‍1(1)Subject to subsection (3), the Commissioner may, in accordance with any procedure established under paragraph (4)‍(b), disclose information referred to in subsection (2) that has come to the Commissioner’s knowledge as a result of the performance or exercise of any of the Commissioner’s duties or powers under this Part to any person or body who, under the legislation of a foreign state, has
(a)functions and duties similar to those of the Commissioner with respect to the protection of personal information; or
(b)responsibilities that relate to conduct that is substantially similar to conduct that would be in contravention of this Part.
(2)The information that the Commissioner is authorized to disclose under subsection (1) is information that the Commissioner believes
(a)would be relevant to an ongoing or potential investigation or proceeding in respect of a contravention of the laws of a foreign state that address conduct that is substantially similar to conduct that would be in contravention of this Part; or
(b)is necessary to disclose in order to obtain from the person or body information that may be useful to an ongoing or potential investigation or audit under this Part.
(3)The Commissioner may only disclose information to the person or body referred to in subsection (1) if the Commissioner has entered into a written arrangement with that person or body that
(a)limits the information to be disclosed to that which is necessary for the purpose set out in paragraph (2)‍(a) or (b);
(b)restricts the use of the information to the purpose for which it was originally shared; and
(c)stipulates that the information be treated in a confidential manner and not be further disclosed without the express consent of the Commissioner.
(4)The Commissioner may enter into arrangements with one or more persons or bodies referred to in subsection (1) in order to
(a)provide for cooperation with respect to the enforcement of laws protecting personal information, including the sharing of information referred to in subsection (2) and the provision of mechanisms for the handling of any complaint in which they are mutually interested;
(b)establish procedures for sharing information referred to in subsection (2);
(c)develop recommendations, resolutions, rules, standards or other instruments with respect to the protection of personal information;
(d)undertake and publish research related to the protection of personal information;
(e)share knowledge and expertise by different means, including through staff exchanges; or
(f)identify issues of mutual interest and determine priorities pertaining to the protection of personal information.
24The Commissioner shall
(a)develop and conduct information programs to foster public understanding, and recognition of the purposes, of this Part;
(b)undertake and publish research that is related to the protection of personal information, including any such research that is requested by the Minister of Industry;
(c)encourage organizations to develop detailed policies and practices, including organizational codes of practice, to comply with Divisions 1 and 1.‍1; and
(d)promote, by any means that the Commissioner considers appropriate, the purposes of this Part.
25(1)The Commissioner shall, within three months after the end of each financial year, submit to Parliament a report concerning the application of this Part, the extent to which the provinces have enacted legislation that is substantially similar to this Part and the application of any such legislation.
(2)Before preparing the report, the Commissioner shall consult with those persons in the provinces who, in the Commissioner’s opinion, are in a position to assist the Commissioner in making a report respecting personal information that is collected, used or disclosed interprovincially or internationally.
26(1)The Governor in Council may make regulations for carrying out the purposes and provisions of this Part, including regulations
(a)specifying, by name or by class, what is a government institution or part of a government institution for the purposes of any provision of this Part;
(a.‍01)[Repealed, 2015, c. 32, s. 21]
(a.‍1)specifying information or classes of information for the purpose of paragraph 7(1)‍(d), (2)‍(c.‍1) or (3)‍(h.‍1);
(b)specifying information to be kept and maintained under subsection 10.‍3(1); and
(c)prescribing anything that by this Part is to be prescribed.
(2)The Governor in Council may, by order,
(a)provide that this Part is binding on any agent of Her Majesty in right of Canada to which the Privacy Act does not apply;
(b)if satisfied that legislation of a province that is substantially similar to this Part applies to an organization, a class of organizations, an activity or a class of activities, exempt the organization, activity or class from the application of this Part in respect of the collection, use or disclosure of personal information that occurs within that province; and
(c)amend Schedule 4.
27(1)Any person who has reasonable grounds to believe that a person has contravened or intends to contravene a provision of Division 1 or 1.‍1 may notify the Commissioner of the particulars of the matter and may request that their identity be kept confidential with respect to the notification.
(2)The Commissioner shall keep confidential the identity of a person who has notified the Commissioner under subsection (1) and to whom an assurance of confidentiality has been provided by the Commissioner.
27.‍1(1)No employer shall dismiss, suspend, demote, discipline, harass or otherwise disadvantage an employee, or deny an employee a benefit of employment, by reason that
(a)the employee, acting in good faith and on the basis of reasonable belief, has disclosed to the Commissioner that the employer or any other person has contravened or intends to contravene a provision of Division 1 or 1.‍1;
(b)the employee, acting in good faith and on the basis of reasonable belief, has refused or stated an intention of refusing to do anything that is a contravention of a provision of Division 1 or 1.‍1;
(c)the employee, acting in good faith and on the basis of reasonable belief, has done or stated an intention of doing anything that is required to be done in order that a provision of Division 1 or 1.‍1 not be contravened; or
(d)the employer believes that the employee will do anything referred to in paragraph (a), (b) or (c).
(2)Nothing in this section impairs any right of an employee either at law or under an employment contract or collective agreement.
(3)In this section, employee includes an independent contractor and employer has a corresponding meaning.
28Every organization that knowingly contravenes subsection 8(8), section 10.‍1 or subsection 10.‍3(1) or 27.‍1(1) or that obstructs the Commissioner or the Commissioner’s delegate in the investigation of a complaint or in conducting an audit is guilty of
(a)an offence punishable on summary conviction and liable to a fine not exceeding $10,000; or
(b)an indictable offence and liable to a fine not exceeding $100,000.
*29(1)The administration of this Part shall, every five years after this Part comes into force, be reviewed by the committee of the House of Commons, or of both Houses of Parliament, that may be designated or established by Parliament for that purpose.
*[Note: Part 1 in force January 1, 2001, see SI/2000-29.‍]
(2)The committee shall undertake a review of the provisions and operation of this Part and shall, within a year after the review is undertaken or within any further period that the House of Commons may authorize, submit a report to Parliament that includes a statement of any changes to this Part or its administration that the committee recommends.
DIVISION 5
Transitional Provisions
30(1)This Part does not apply to any organization in respect of personal information that it collects, uses or discloses within a province whose legislature has the power to regulate the collection, use or disclosure of the information, unless the organization does it in connection with the operation of a federal work, undertaking or business or the organization discloses the information outside the province for consideration.
(1.‍1)This Part does not apply to any organization in respect of personal health information that it collects, uses or discloses.
*(2)Subsection (1) ceases to have effect three years after the day on which this section comes into force.
*[Note: Section 30 in force January 1, 2001, see SI/2000-29.‍]
*(2.‍1)Subsection (1.‍1) ceases to have effect one year after the day on which this section comes into force.
*[Note: Section 30 in force January 1, 2001, see SI/2000-29.‍]
Clause 5:New.
Clause 6:Spent consequential amendments.
Aeronautics Act
Clause 10:Existing text of subsection 4.‍83(1):
4.‍83(1)Despite section 5 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, to the extent that that section relates to obligations set out in Schedule 1 to that Act relating to the disclosure of information, and despite subsection 7(3) of that Act, an operator of an aircraft departing from Canada that is due to land in a foreign state or fly over the United States and land outside Canada or of a Canadian aircraft departing from any place outside Canada that is due to land in a foreign state or fly over the United States may, in accordance with the regulations, provide to a competent authority in that foreign state any information that is in the operator’s control relating to persons on board or expected to be on board the aircraft and that is required by the laws of the foreign state.
Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission Act
Clause 13:New.
Competition Act
Clause 14:New.
Canada Business Corporations Act
Clause 15:Existing text of subsection 21.‍1(5):
(5)Within one year after the sixth anniversary of the day on which an individual ceases to be an individual with significant control over the corporation, the corporation shall — subject to any other Act of Parliament and to any Act of the legislature of a province that provides for a longer retention period — dispose of any of that individual’s personal information, as defined in subsection 2(1) of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, that is recorded in the register.
Public Servants Disclosure Protection Act
Clause 16:Relevant portion of section 15:
15Sections 12 to 14 apply despite
(a)section 5 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, to the extent that that section relates to obligations set out in Schedule 1 to that Act relating to the disclosure of information; and
Clause 17:Existing text of subsection 16(1.‍1):
(1.‍1)Subsection (1) does not apply in respect of information the disclosure of which is subject to any restriction created by or under any Act of Parliament, including the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act.
Clause 18:Existing text of section 50:
50Despite section 5 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, to the extent that that section relates to obligations set out in Schedule 1 to that Act relating to the disclosure of information, and despite any other Act of Parliament that restricts the disclosure of information, a report by a chief executive in response to recommendations made by the Commissioner to the chief executive under this Act may include personal information within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of that Act, or section 3 of the Privacy Act, depending on which of those Acts applies to the portion of the public sector for which the chief executive is responsible.
An Act to promote the efficiency and adaptability of the Canadian economy by regulating certain activities that discourage reliance on electronic means of carrying out commercial activities, and to amend the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission Act, the Competition Act, the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and the Telecommunications Act
Clause 19:Existing text of section 2:
2In the event of a conflict between a provision of this Act and a provision of Part 1 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, the provision of this Act operates despite the provision of that Part, to the extent of the conflict.
Clause 20:Relevant portion of subsection 20(3):
(3)The following factors must be taken into account when determining the amount of a penalty:
.‍.‍. 
(c)the person’s history with respect to any previous violation under this Act, any previous conduct that is reviewable under section 74.‍011 of the Competition Act and any previous contravention of section 5 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act that relates to a collection or use described in subsection 7.‍1(2) or (3) of that Act;
Clause 21:Text of subsection 47(1):
47(1)A person who alleges that they are affected by an act or omission that constitutes a contravention of any of sections 6 to 9 of this Act or of section 5 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act that relates to a collection or use described in subsection 7.‍1(2) or (3) of that Act — or that constitutes conduct that is reviewable under section 74.‍011 of the Competition Act — may apply to a court of competent jurisdiction for an order under section 51 against one or more persons who they allege have committed the act or omission or who they allege are liable for the contravention or reviewable conduct by reason of section 52 or 53.
(2)Text of subsection 47(4):
(4)The applicant must, without delay, serve a copy of the application on every person against whom an order is sought, on the Commission if the application identifies a contravention of this Act, on the Commissioner of Competition if the application identifies conduct that is reviewable under section 74.‍011 of the Competition Act and on the Privacy Commissioner if the application identifies a contravention of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act.
Clause 22:Relevant portion of section 50:
50The following may intervene in any proceedings in connection with an application under subsection 47(1) for an order under paragraph 51(1)‍(b) and in any related proceedings:
.‍.‍. 
(c)the Privacy Commissioner, if the application identifies a contravention of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act.
Clause 23:Relevant portion of subsection 51(1):
51(1)If, after hearing the application, the court is satisfied that one or more persons have contravened any of the provisions referred to in the application or engaged in conduct referred to in it that is reviewable under section 74.‍011 of the Competition Act, the court may order the person or persons, as the case may be, to pay the applicant
.‍.‍. 
(b)a maximum of
.‍.‍. 
(vi)in the case of a contravention of section 5 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act that relates to a collection or use described in subsection 7.‍1(2) or (3) of that Act, $1,000,000 for each day on which a contravention occurred, and
(2)Text of subsection 51(2):
(2)The purpose of an order under paragraph (1)‍(b) is to promote compliance with this Act, the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act or the Competition Act, as the case may be, and not to punish.
(2)Relevant portion of subsection 51(3):
(3)The court must consider the following factors when it determines the amount payable under paragraph (1)‍(b) for each contravention or each occurrence of the reviewable conduct:
.‍.‍. 
(c)the person’s history, or each person’s history, as the case may be, with respect to any previous contravention of this Act and of section 5 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act that relates to a collection or use described in subsection 7.‍1(2) or (3) of that Act and with respect to any previous conduct that is reviewable under section 74.‍011 of the Competition Act;
Clause 24:Existing text of sections 52 to 54:
52An officer, director, agent or mandatary of a corporation that commits a contravention of any of sections 6 to 9 of this Act or of section 5 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act that relates to a collection or use described in subsection 7.‍1(2) or (3) of that Act, or that engages in conduct that is reviewable under section 74.‍011 of the Competition Act, is liable for the contravention or reviewable conduct, as the case may be, if they directed, authorized, assented to, acquiesced in or participated in the commission of that contravention, or engaged in that conduct, whether or not the corporation is proceeded against.
53A person is liable for a contravention of any of sections 6 to 9 of this Act or of section 5 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act that relates to a collection or use described in subsection 7.‍1(2) or (3) of that Act, or for conduct that is reviewable under section 74.‍011 of the Competition Act, that is committed or engaged in, as the case may be, by their employee acting within the scope of their employment or their agent or mandatary acting within the scope of their authority, whether or not the employee, agent or mandatary is identified or proceeded against.
54(1)A person must not be found to have committed a contravention of any of sections 6 to 9 of this Act or of section 5 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act that relates to a collection or use described in subsection 7.‍1(2) or (3) of that Act, or to have engaged in conduct that is reviewable under section 74.‍011 of the Competition Act, if they establish that they exercised due diligence to prevent the contravention or conduct, as the case may be.
(2)Every rule and principle of the common law that makes any circumstance a justification or excuse in relation to a charge for an offence applies in respect of a contravention of any of sections 6 to 9 of this Act or of section 5 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act that relates to a collection or use described in subsection 7.‍1(2) or (3) of that Act, or in respect of conduct that is reviewable under section 74.‍011 of the Competition Act, to the extent that it is not inconsistent with this Act or the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act or the Competition Act, as the case may be.
Clause 25: (1) and (2)Relevant portion of section 56:
56Despite subsection 7(3) of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, any organization to which Part 1 of that Act applies may on its own initiative disclose to the Commission, the Commissioner of Competition or the Privacy Commissioner any information in its possession that it believes relates to
(a)a contravention of
.‍.‍. 
(iii)section 5 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, which contravention relates to a collection or use described in subsection 7.‍1(2) or (3) of that Act, or
Clause 26:Existing text of section 57:
57The Commission, the Commissioner of Competition and the Privacy Commissioner must consult with each other to the extent that they consider appropriate to ensure the effective regulation, under this Act, the Competition Act, the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and the Telecommunications Act, of commercial conduct that discourages the use of electronic means to carry out commercial activities, and to coordinate their activities under those Acts as they relate to the regulation of that type of conduct.
Clause 27: (1)Relevant portion of subsection 58(1):
58(1)The Commission may disclose information obtained by it in the performance or exercise of its duties or powers related to any of sections 6 to 9 of this Act and, in respect of conduct carried out by electronic means, to section 41 of the Telecommunications Act,
(a)to the Privacy Commissioner, if the Commission believes that the information relates to the performance or exercise of the Privacy Commissioner’s duties or powers under Part 1 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act in respect of a collection or use described in subsection 7.‍1(2) or (3) of that Act; and
(2)Relevant portion of subsection 58(2):
(2)Despite section 29 of the Competition Act, the Commissioner of Competition may disclose information obtained by him or her in the performance or exercise of his or her duties or powers related to section 52.‍01 or 74.‍011 of that Act or, in respect of conduct carried out by electronic means, to section 52, 52.‍1, 53, 55, 55.‍1, 74.‍01, 74.‍02, 74.‍04, 74.‍05 or 74.‍06 of that Act,
(a)to the Privacy Commissioner, if the Commissioner of Competition believes that the information relates to the performance or exercise of the Privacy Commissioner’s duties or powers under Part 1 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act in respect of a collection or use described in subsection 7.‍1(2) or (3) of that Act; and
(3)Relevant portion of subsection 58(3):
(3)The Privacy Commissioner may disclose information obtained by him or her in the performance or exercise of his or her duties or powers under Part 1 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act if the information relates to a collection or use described in subsection 7.‍1(2) or (3) of that Act or to an act alleged in a complaint in respect of which the Privacy Commissioner decides, under subsection 12(2) or 12.‍2(2) of that Act, to not conduct an investigation or to discontinue an investigation,
Clause 28:Existing text of subsection 59(3):
(3)The Privacy Commissioner may use the information that is disclosed to him or her under paragraph 58(1)‍(a) or (2)‍(a) only for the purpose of performing or exercising his or her duties or powers under Part 1 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act in respect of a collection or use described in subsection 7.‍1(2) or (3) of that Act.
Clause 29: (1) and (2)Relevant portion of subsection 60(1):
60(1)Information may be disclosed under an agreement or arrangement in writing between the Government of Canada, the Commission, the Commissioner of Competition or the Privacy Commissioner and the government of a foreign state, an international organization of states or an international organization established by the governments of states, or any institution of any such government or organization, if the person responsible for disclosing the information believes that
(a)the information may be relevant to an investigation or proceeding in respect of a contravention of the laws of a foreign state that address conduct that is substantially similar to
.‍.‍. 
(ii)conduct that contravenes section 5 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and that relates to a collection or use described in subsection 7.‍1(2) or (3) of that Act,
(b)the disclosure is necessary in order to obtain from that foreign state, organization or institution information that may be relevant for any of the following purposes and no more information will be disclosed than is required for that purpose:
.‍.‍. 
(iii)the performance or exercise by the Privacy Commissioner of his or her duties or powers under Part 1 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act in respect of a collection or use described in subsection 7.‍1(2) or (3) of that Act, or
Clause 30:Existing text of section 61:
61The Commission, the Commissioner of Competition and the Privacy Commissioner must provide the Minister of Industry with any reports that he or she requests for the purpose of coordinating the implementation of sections 6 to 9 of this Act, sections 52.‍01 and 74.‍011 of the Competition Act and section 7.‍1 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act.
Transportation Modernization Act
Clause 31:Existing text of subsection 17.‍91(4):
(4)A company that collects, uses or communicates information under this section, section 17.‍31 or 17.‍94, subsection 28(1.‍1) or 36(2) or regulations made under section 17.‍95 may do so
(a)despite section 5 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, to the extent that that section relates to obligations set out in Schedule 1 to that Act relating to the collection, use, disclosure and retention of information, and despite section 7 of that Act; and
(b)despite any provision of provincial legislation that is substantially similar to Part 1 of the Act referred to in paragraph (a) and that limits the collection, use, communication or preservation of information.

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